Eleana Tse, Katerina Plakitsi, Spyridon Voulgaris, George A. Alexiou


By teaching first aid at school, the number of bystanders can be increased. Researchers are attempting to identify effective educational methods to teach first aid to children. The literature review examines published studies to provide information on the content of kindergarten first aid training. MEDLINE, Scopus, and ERIC were the major databases searched for related literature published between January 2003 and November 2022. The first aid interventions were varied in content and aimed to improve students' first aid knowledge, skills, and attitude. Combining both theoretical and 'hands-on' training components into the education process was discovered to be a critical factor in delivering material. More research is needed to determine the role of first aid education in kindergarten, as well as interventions for knowledge and skill retention.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


first aid, program, early childhood education, children

Full Text:



Ammirati, C., Gagnayre, R., Amsallem, C., Némitz, B., & Gignon, M. (2014). Are schoolteachers able to teach first aid to children younger than 6 years? A comparative study. BMJ Open, 4(9).

Bánfai, B., Pandur, A., Schiszler, B., Pék, E., Radnai, B., Bánfai-Csonka, H., &Betlehem, J. (2018). Little lifesavers: Can we start first aid education in kindergarten?–A longitudinal cohort study. Health Education Journal, 77(8), 1007-1017.

Beck, S., Meier-Klages, V., Michaelis, M., Sehner, S., Harendza, S., Zöllner, C., &Kubitz, J. C. (2016). Teaching school children basic life support improves teaching and basic life support skills of medical students: a randomized, controlled trial. Resuscitation, 108, 1-7.

Berthelot, S., Plourde, M., Bertrand, I., Bourassa, A., Couture, M. M., Berger-Pelletier, É., ... & Camden, S. (2013). Push hard, push fast: quasi-experimental study on the capacity of elementary schoolchildren to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Scandinavian journal of trauma, resuscitation, and emergency medicine, 21(1), 1-8.

Bohn, A., Van Aken, H., Lukas, R. P., Weber, T., & Breckwoldt, J. (2013). Schoolchildren as lifesavers in Europe–Training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation for children. Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology, 27(3), 387-396.

Bollig, G., Myklebust, A. G., &Østringen, K. (2011). Effects of first aid training in the kindergarten-a pilot study. Scandinavian journal of trauma, resuscitation and emergency medicine, 19(1), 1-7.

Böttiger, B. W., & Van Aken, H. (2015). Kids save lives–: Training school children in cardiopulmonary resuscitation worldwide is now endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Resuscitation, 94, A5-A7.

Böttiger, B. W., Bossaert, L. L., Castrén, M., Cimpoesu, D., Georgiou, M., Greif, R., ... & Wingen, S. (2016). Kids Save Lives–ERC position statement on school children education in CPR: “Hands that help–Training children is training for life”. Resuscitation, 105, A1-A3.

Böttiger, B. W., Semeraro, F., Altemeyer, K. H., Breckwoldt, J., Kreimeier, U., Rücker, G., ... & Wingen, S. (2017). KIDS SAVE LIVES: school children education in resuscitation for Europe and the world. European Journal of Anaesthesiology EJA, 34(12), 792-796.

Cave, D. M., Aufderheide, T. P., Beeson, J., Ellison, A., Gregory, A., Hazinski, M. F., ... & Schexnayder, S. M. (2011). Importance and implementation of training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillation in schools: a science advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 123(6), 691-706.

Cheng, Y. H., Yeung, C. Y., Sharma, A., So, K. Y., Ko, H. F., Wong, K., ... & Lee, A. (2021). Non-resuscitative first aid training and assessment for junior secondary school students: A pre-post study. Medicine, 100(34).

Connolly, M., Toner, P., Connolly, D., & McCluskey, D. R. (2007). The ‘ABC for life program—teaching basic life support in schools. Resuscitation, 72(2), 270-279.

Eisenburger, P., & Safar, P. (1999). Life supporting first aid training of the public--review and recommendations. Resuscitation, 41(1), 3–18.

Fleischhackl, R., Nuernberger, A., Sterz, F., Schoenberg, C., Urso, T., Habart, T., ... & Chandra-Strobos, N. (2009). School children sufficiently apply life-supporting first aid: a prospective investigation. Critical Care, 13(4), 1-7.

Frederick, K., Bixby, E., Orzel, M. N., Stewart-Brown, S., & Willett, K. (2000). An evaluation of the effectiveness of the Injury Minimization Programme for Schools (IMPS). Injury Prevention, 6(2), 92-95.

He, Z., Wynn, P., & Kendrick, D. (2014). Non-resuscitative first-aid training for children and laypeople: a systematic review. Emergency Medicine Journal, 31(9), 763-768.

Hill, K., Mohan, C., Stevenson, M., & McCluskey, D. (2009). Objective assessment of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills of 10–11-year-old schoolchildren using two different external chest compression to ventilation ratios. Resuscitation, 80(1), 96-99.

Jaffe, E., Khalemsky, A., & Khalemsky, M. (2021). Game-related injuries in schools: a retrospective nationwide 6-year evaluation and implications for prevention policy. Israel Journal of health policy research, 10(1), 1-10.

Jones, I., Whitfield, R., Colquhoun, M., Chamberlain, D., Vetter, N., & Newcombe, R. (2007). At what age can schoolchildren provide effective chest compressions? An observational study from the Heartstart UK schools training program. BMJ, 334(7605), 1201.

Kuvaki, B., & Özbilgin, Ş. (2018). School Children Save Lives. Turkish Journal of anaesthesiology and reanimation, 46(3), 170.

Lukas, R. P., Van Aken, H., Mölhoff, T., Weber, T., Rammert, M., Wild, E., & Bohn, A. (2016). Kids save lives: a six-year longitudinal study of schoolchildren learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Who should do the teaching and will the effects last?. Resuscitation, 101, 35-40.

Mohajervatan, A., Raeisi, A. R., Atighechian, G., Tavakoli, N., & Muosavi, H. (2020). The Efficacy of Operational First Aid Training Course in Preschool Children. فصلنامهسلامتدرحوادث و بلایا,) 6(1), 17-22.‎ Retrieved from

Perkins, G. D., Graesner, J. T., Semeraro, F., Olasveengen, T., Soar, J., Lott, C., ... & European Resuscitation Council Guideline Collaborators. (2021). European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2021: Executive summary. Resuscitation.

Plischewski, H., Kucirkova, N., Haug, I., Tanum, I., & Lea, S. (2021). Children save lives: evaluation of a first aid training in Norwegian kindergartens. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 29 (6), 813-827.

Reveruzzi, B., Buckley, L., & Sheehan, M. (2016). School‐Based first aid training programs: A systematic review. Journal of school health, 86(4), 266-272.

Semeraro, F., Wingen, S., Schroeder, D. C., Ecker, H., Scapigliati, A., Ristagno, G., ... & Böttiger, B. W. (2018). KIDS SAVE LIVES—Three years of implementation in Europe. Resuscitation, 131, e9-e11.

Toner, P., Connolly, M., Laverty, L., McGrath, P., Connolly, D., & McCluskey, D. R. (2007). Teaching basic life support to school children using medical students and teachers in a ‘peer-training’ model—results of the ‘ABC for life program. Resuscitation, 75(1), 169-175.

Tse, E., & Alexiou, G. (2021). First Aid Training to School Students: Should Younger Children Be Trained? Indian pediatrics, 58(11), 1099–1100.

Tse, E., & Alexiou, G. (2021). Letter to the Editor: Non-resuscitative first aid training and assessment for junior secondary school students. Medicine Correspondence Blog,

Tse, E., Plakitsi, K., Voulgaris, S., & Alexiou, G. A. (2022). First Aid Training for Children in Kindergarten: A Pilot Randomized Control Study. Children (Basel, Switzerland), 9(11), 1626.

Tse, E., Plakitsi, K., Voulgaris, S., & Alexiou, G. A. (2022). Teaching Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Defibrillation in Children. Pediatric emergency care, 38(9), e1577.

Tse, E., Plakitsi, K., Voulgaris, S., & Alexiou, G. A. (2023). The Role of a First Aid Training Program for Young Children: A Systematic Review. Children, 10(3), 431.

Wilks, J., & Pendergast, D. (2017). Skills for life: First aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in schools. Health Education Journal, 76(8), 1009-1023.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Eleana Tse, Katerina Plakitsi, Spyridon Voulgaris, George A. Alexiou

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).