Atanasia Ikoore Njeru, Josephine Kirimi


Education is a shared responsibility and all stakeholders need to understand and appreciate what is being done and what is required of them to make meaningful contributions to the process. Because the Competency-Based Curriculum shifted its focus from teaching-centric to collaborative-centered, parents are important stakeholders for its successful implementation. Therefore, empowering and engaging a parent in the learning process is essential to the learner’s growth and development. The study examined parents’ engagement in CBC implementation. This study specifically aimed to determine parents’ engagement in the implementation of Competency-Based Curriculum in private primary schools in Tharaka South Sub-County of Tharaka-Nithi County. To get this, the researcher went to private primary schools in Tharaka South Sub County to observe how parents are embracing CBC and randomly selected some parents for interviews, teachers, and head teachers to fill out questionnaires. The study adopted a descriptive survey design where the targeted population was drawn from the 30 private schools in the sub-county. The study targeted 528 respondents. 66 respondents were sampled: 42 parents, 18 teachers and 6 head teachers. Simple random sampling was then used to select the participant. The study conducted a pretest study in 3 private primary schools for the purpose of validating the research instruments. Data was collected using questionnaires for head teachers and teachers and interview schedules for parents. The validity of the research instruments was determined through expert judgment whereas the reliability of the questionnaires was determined through a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.7982 was obtained. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically whereas quantitative data was summarized using percentages, mean, standard deviation and frequencies were used. This was facilitated by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 21. The study established a significant relationship between the parent’s literacy and the implementation of CBC with a significance value of p=0.000<0.05. The study concluded that the implementation of CBC is greatly challenged by a lack of sensitization on the implementation of the CBC and perceived CBC as expensive, demanding and time-consuming. Thus, recommended that the private schools get more time with their parents to sensitize them on the CBC implementation and get to know their role in the academic performance of their children and also try to change their perception of CBC as expensive, demanding and time-consuming.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


parent’s engagement, competency-based curriculum, curriculum implementation

Full Text:



Aldridge, A. N. (2015). Analysis of parent, educator, and administrator perspectives on parental participation in a large urban charter school system in the Midwest. (Doctoral dissertation, Minnesota, Lindenwood University).

Book, P. A. (2014). Everyone, to the office! Ten takeaways from CBE's early adopters. Boulder, Colorado: WICHE Consortium for Instructional and Computing Education (WCET)

Guber, G. (2018). Here are five ways in which students might profit from a competency-based education. Explorance. Information retrieved from

Hasmi, J. (2015). A multi-method analysis of the fuel program's effect on parent engagement in their children's higher education (Doctoral dissertation. Harvard Graduate School of Education).

Hill, N. E. (2015). Evaluating the impact of dads' engagement on their children's academic success, Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(4). 919.

Johnstone S. M. & Soares, L (2014). Principles for developing CBE programs change, 46, (2), 12-19

KICD (2018). Submission of a Competency-Based Education Progress Report to the National Steering Committee. Nairobi: KICD.

Kimencu, D. & Irungu, D. (2019). Teachers want sensitization of parents on the Competency-Based Curriculum fast-tracked. A center for educational professional development in career-advancing advising and monitoring in Kenya and East Africa. Retrieved from K-24 team on July 29, 2019.

Komba, S. C. & Kira, E. S. (2013). Evidence for practice-based education's efficacy. Competencies in teaching as a student teacher. Morogoro: West Gate.

Komba, S C. & Mwandanji, M. (2016). The impact of a competency-based curriculum on teaching and learning in Tanzania, 4(2), 73-80. Tanzanian pre-service teachers' ability to instruct. Journal of Education and Practice, 4(1), 157.

Lawton, R. (2017). The views of both parents and educators on how their children's after-school tutoring programs incorporate their participation. Minnesota, Walden University.

Le, C. Wolfe, R & Steinberg, A (2014). The past and the promise. Today’s CBE Research Series. Boston: MA Publishers.

Marshall, I. A. & Jackman, G. A. (2015). What role parents may play, how students can be more engaged, and how to prevent the "secondary slump", Cave Hill: Canadian Center of Science and Education.

Morgan, A. M. (2019). Internet Society of Kenya. Nairobi: Unpublished.

Mugenda, A. & Mugenda, O (2013). Research Methods. Quantitative and Qualitative Approach. Nairobi: ACTS Press.

Njui H. W. (2018). We are committed to reshaping Kenya's higher education system by establishing new university-level research hubs of excellence. European Journal of Education Studies.

Olibie, E. I. (2019). Principals' perspectives on parents' participation in implementing educational policies in Nigerian schools. Department of Educational Foundations. Nnamdi Azikiwe University.

Ondimu, S. M. (2018). Preschool teachers' readiness to use the Competency-Based Education framework. Nairobi: Unpublished.

Republic of Kenya, (2016). Curriculum Guidelines for Elementary and Secondary Schools (BECF). Government press in Nairobi.

Republic of Kenya, (2013). Basic Education Act. Nairobi: Government Print.

Ross, T. (2016). Difference in high school graduation rates and college enrollment based on parental participation. An examination of current educational policies. 24, 30.

Ruth, L. (2017). How parents and educators see after-school tutoring and mentoring programs. Minnesota: Walden University.

Thomas, L. (2020). How curriculum and teamwork may best serve students in a time of increased decentralization. In London, at RSA.

Nikovu, R. & Kovatcheva, E. (2014). Model of Education Based on Competencies. PICTET Tempus, Sofia: Za bukvite.

Urunana (2018). Implementing Competency-Based Curriculum. Defeats and triumphs. There is a periodical by that name available in Kigali: urunanarw' abarezi.

Vukovic, R. Roberts, S. O & Wright, L. G. (2013). Role of Mathematic Anxiety in the Connection between Parental Involvement and Children's Performance in Math. Education and Development, 24,446-467. 693430.

Waweru, J. W. (2018). The impact of faculty readiness on the adoption of a competency-based curriculum in Nyaduarua North Sub-public County's elementary schools. Nairobi: Unpublished.

Zindi & Ruparandanda (2011). Introduction to Computer Technology. Ministry of Education Strategic Plan. Kampala: Unpublished.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Atanasia Ikoore Njeru, Josephine Kirimi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).