Ariadne Evangelinou, Ellie Negka, Nikolaos Manesis


The research highlights the teacher’s important role in shaping a productive school climate that leads to students’ social and personal development and to better learning achievements as well. In this effort, the teacher must possess and cultivate counseling skills such as empathy and acceptance. There is little research all over the world that presents the views of primary school students on teachers' counseling skills and their implementation in the classroom. A questionnaire survey was conducted on 168 primary school students in Greece. The results show that students acknowledge teachers’ counseling skills being employed in the classroom leading to a flourishing school climate.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


teachers, counselling skills, students, primary school

Full Text:



Alexopoulos, N., Babalis, T., Tsoli, K., & Delioridou, S. (2023). The pedagogical role of the primary-school headteacher: Insights from Greece. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 9(3), 535-549.

Bardelli, N. E., Martinez, J. A. H., & Ruiz, I. C. (2023). The importance of socio-affective relationships in educational contexts: Validation of a closeness-conflict scale and a motivational communication scale. International Journal of Educational Psychology, 12(2), 149-177.

Bayar, A., & Karaduman, H. A. (2021). The Effects of School Culture on Students Academic Achievements. Shanlax International Journal of Education, 9(3), 99-109.

Bilgin, O., Yeşilyurt, E., & İnce, M. (2021). The effects of university students’ school climate on their motivation levels. International Journal of Psychology and Educational Studies, 8(2), 114-121.

Blake, B., & Pope, T. (2008). Developmental Psychology: Incorporating Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s Theories in Classrooms. Journal of Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives in Education, 1(1), 59–67. Retrieved from

Blazar, D. (2018). Validating Teacher Effects on Students’ Attitudes and Behaviors: Evidence from Random Assignment of Teachers to Students. Education Finance and Policy, 13(3), 281–309.

Bonacquisti, A., & McElwaine, P. (2020). An Experiential Approach to Teaching Counseling Skills: Instructional Modules for Undergraduate and Graduate Students in Psychology. Society for the Teaching of Psychology. Retrieved from

Brion, C., & Kiral, B. (2022). Creating and Sustaining Positive School Climate During COVID- 19 Pandemic. Journal of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies, 6(2), 15-33. Retrieved from

Brion-Meisels, G., O’Neil, E., & Bishop, S. (2022). School-Level Strategies Interrupting Bullying & Harassment in Schools – Toolkit. IDRA EAC-South. Retrieved from

Brouzos, Α. (2004). The Theoretical System of the Person-Centered Approach. In A. Brouzos (Ed). Person-Centered Counseling: Theory, Research, and Applications (pp. 135-308). Athens: Dardanos. (in Greek)

Bryman, A. (2017). Methods of Social Research (Α. Aidinis, ed., P. Sakellariou trans.). Athens: Gutenberg. (in Greek)

Ciccone, P. A., & Frieberg, J. A. (2013). School Climate and the National School Climate Standards. In T. Dary, & T. Pickeral (Eds). School Climate Practices for Implementation and Sustainability. A School Climate Practice Brief, 1, New York, NY: National School Climate Centre. Retrieved from

Cohen, J. & Geier, V. K. (2010). School Climate Research Summary: January 2010. New York: N.S.C.C. Retrieved from

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research Methods in Education (6th ed.). NY: Routledge.

Coşanay, G., Karalı, Y. (2022). Examination of classroom teachers’ 21st-century teaching skills. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching (IOJET), 9(1), 432-448. Retrieved from

DeVellis, R. F. (1991). Scale Development: Theory and Applications. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

DuFour, R., & Mattos, M. (2013). How do principals really improve schools? Educational Leadership, 70(7), 34-40. Retrieved from

Ellis, K., Gage, N. A., Kramer, D., Baton, E., & Angelosante, C. (2022). School Climate in Rural and Urban Schools and the Impact of SWPBIS. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 41(2), 73–83.

Eren, Z. (2019). Investigation of Safety and Supportive School Climate in Schools According to Various Variables. European Journal of Education Studies, 5(11), 56-80. Retrieved from

Evans, M. I., Harvey, T. S., Buckley, L., & Yan, E. (2009). Differentiating classroom climate concepts: Academic, management, and emotional environments. New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online, 4(2), 131-146.

Faster, D., & Lopez, D. (2013). School climate and assessment. In T. Dary, & T. Pickeral (Eds). School Climate Practices for Implementation and Sustainability. A School Climate Practice Brief, 1, New York, NY: National School Climate Centre. Retrieved from

Fitri, S., Mamesah, M., & Safitri, D. A. (2019). Description of empathetic listening of school counselors on the counseling among problematic students. Konselor, 8(1), 23-31.

Fontana, A., & Frey, J. (1998). Interviewing: The Art of Science. In N. Denzin, & Y. Lincoln (Eds.). Collecting and interpreting qualitative materials (pp. 47-78). London: Sage.

Fullan, M. (2006). The Future of Educational Change: System Thinkers in Action. Journal of Educational Change 7(3), 113–122.

Gabrhelová, G., & Pasternakova, L. (2016). Teachers in the Context of Vocational Education. Acta Technologica Dubnicae, 6(3), 100-113.

Gabrijelčič, M. K., Antolin, U., & Istenič, A. (2021). Teacher’s social and emotional competences: A study among student teachers and students in education science in Slovenia. European Journal of Educational Research, 10(4), 2033-2044.

Gouleta, E. (2006). Improving teaching and learning: A counselling curriculum model for teachers. VISTAS ONLINE. Retrieved from

Green, E. J., McCollum, V. C., & Hays, D. G. (2008). Teaching Advocacy Counseling within a Social Justice Framework: Implications for School Counselors and Educators. Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology, 1(2), 14-30.

Heron, J. (2001). Helping the Client: A Creative Practical Guide. (5th ed.) London: Sage Publications.

Hill, C. E. (2004). Helping Skills: Facilitating Exploration, Insight, and Action. (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Hoang, V. H. T. (2022). The zone of proximal privilege: towards a Vygotskian theory of privilege in education. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 35(7), 791-804.

Ivey, A., Gluckstern, N., & & Bradford-Ivey, M. (2009). Counseling. A Method of Practical Approach. (M. Malikiosi-Loizou trans.). Athens: Ellinika Grammata. (in Greek)

Kalkan, F., & Dağlı, E. (2021). The relationships between school climate school belonging and school burnout in secondary school students. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 8(4), 59–79.

Korpershoek, H., Canrinus, E. T., Fokkens-Bruinsma, M., & de Boer, H. (2020) The relationships between school belonging and students’ motivational, social-emotional, behavioural, and academic outcomes in secondary education: a meta-analytic review. Research Papers in Education, 35(6), 641-680.

Katsatasri, P. (2022). The Development of a Training Package for Student-Teacher Counseling Skills. Journal of Education and Learning, 11(5), 107-112.

Kendall, M. G., & Smith, B. B. (1938). Randomness and random Sampling Numbers. Journal of Statistical Society, 101, 164-166.

Keyes, T. S. (2019). A Qualitative Inquiry: Factors That Promote Classroom Belonging and Engagement Among High School Students. School Community Journal, 29(1). Retrieved from

Koth, C. W., Bradshaw, C. P., & Leaf, P. J. (2008). A multilevel study of predictors of student perceptions of school climate: The effect of classroom-level factors. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(1), 96–104.

Margolis, A. A. (2020). Zone of Proximal Development, Scaffolding and Teaching Practice. Cultural-Historical Psychology, 16, 15-26.

McLeod, J., & McLeod J. (2020). Counseling skills: A practical guide for counselors and those who work in the human support professions. (St. Vassilopoulos, Ed.). Athens: Gutenberg. (in Greek)

McMahon, M., & Pileggi-Proud, T. (2022). Cultivating the talent of educators for learning and belonging. Journal of Catholic Education, 25(2), 178–187. https://10.15365/joce.2502102022.

Meroni, E. C., Vera-Toscano, E., & Costa, P. (2015). Can low-skill teachers make good students? Empirical evidence from PIAAC and PISA. Journal of Policy Modeling, 37(2), 308-323.

Merton, R. K. (1968). Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: The Free Press.

Miles, M., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis, an expanded sourcebook. (2nd ed.). London: Sage

McLellan, R., & Nicholl, B. (2008). The importance of classroom climate in fostering student creativity in Design & Technology lessons. In E.W.L. Norman, & D. Spendlove (Eds.). The Design and Technology Association International Research Conference (pp. 29-39). Retrieved from

National School Climate Council (2007). The School Climate Challenge Narrowing the Gap Between School Climate Research and School Climate Policy, Practice Guidelines and Teacher Education Policy. Retrieved from

O.E.C.D. (2018). Effective Teacher Policies: Insights from PISA. PISA, OECD Publishing. Retrieved from

Özdemir, S. (2012). The Relationship between School Culture and Organizational Health in Primary Schools. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, 18(4), 599-620. Retrieved from

Paniagua, A., & Istance, D. (2018). Teachers as Designers of Learning Environments: The Importance of Innovative Pedagogies. Educational Research and Innovation. Paris: OECD

Payne, A. A. (2018). Creating and Sustaining a Positive and Communal School Climate: Contemporary Research, Present Obstacles, and Future Directions. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from

Robinson, D., & Lewis, C. W. (2017). Typologies for Effectiveness: Characteristics of Effective Teachers in Urban Learning Environments. Journal of Urban Learning, Teaching, and Research, 13, 124-134. Retrieved from

Rogers, C. R. (1957). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21(2), 95–103.

Rogers, C. R. (1944). The development of insight in a counseling relationship. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 8(6), 331–341.

Rustamov, E., Aliyeva, M., Rustamova, N., & Zalova-Nuriyeva, U. (2023). Adaptation of the School Climate Questionnaire: Its Association with Psychological Distress, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Mental Wellbeing in Azerbaijan. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 81(4), 517 – 530.

Saeed, A., & Akbar, R. A. (2021). Relationship of Teachers’ Professional Skills and Students’ Achievement in English at BA Level. Bulletin of Education and Research, 43(1), 31-44. Retrieved from

Saldaña, D. (2001). Cultural Competency: A Practical Guide for Mental Health Service Providers. Austin TX: The University of Texas, Hogg Foundation for Mental Health.

Schoen, L. T., & Teddlie, C. (2008) A new model of school culture: a response to a call for conceptual clarity, School Effectiveness and School Improvement, An International Journal of Research, Policy and Practice, 19(2), 129-153.

Sink, C. A., & Spencer, L. R. (2005). My Class Inventory – Short Form as an Accountability Tool for Elementary School Counselors to Measure Classroom Climate. Professional School Counseling, 9, 37-48.

Stephanou, G., & Kyridis, A. (2012). University Students’ Perceptions of Teacher Effectiveness and Emotions in Lectures: The Role of Socio-cognitive Factors, and Academic Performance. International Education Studies, 5(2).

Thapa, A., Cohen, J., Higgins - D’Alessandro, A., & Guffey, S. (2012). School Climate Research Summary: August 2012. N.Y.: National School Climate Centre. Retrieved from

Tornee, S., & Sanrattana, W. (2023). Collaborative Actions to Enhance Effective Teacher Skills. World Journal of Education, 13(2), 41-55.

Virtanen, M., Kivimäki, M., Luopa, P., Vahtera, J., Elovainio, M., Jokela, J., & Pietikäinen, M. (2009). Staff reports of psychosocial climate at school and adolescents’ health, truancy and health education in Finland. European Journal of Public Health, 19(5), 554–560.

Zainuddin & Hardiansyah, F. (2023). Teacher Classroom Management Skills and Its Implementation in Primary School Learning. Elementary School Forum, 10(1), 92-105. Retrieved from



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Ariadne Evangelinou, Ellie Negka, Nikolaos Manesis

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).