Dhiksha J., Shivakumara K.


The Montessori Method of education is becoming more popular in Indian cities in the recent decades. The parents, educationists and policy makers are keenly interested in the overall development of their children or stakeholders. Since its inception, the Montessori Method of education is adopting several procedures based on its basic principles of cognitive, social and emotional development of the children. Although every principle of Montessori education is not followed in the Indian Montessori schools, the schools are adhering to several of them. The present article adopted comparative analyses to determine the effect of Montessori and traditional method of education on emotional intelligence of the school children. A total sample of 1082 children between the age group of 12 – 16 years was selected from the schools of Montessori and traditional education. The data were collected using the Bar-on, (1997, 2000) Emotional Intelligence scale with Likert response patterns ranging 1 to 5. The obtained data was subjected to ‘t’ test analysis and it was evident in the result findings that the children of Montessori method of education has significantly higher emotional intelligence than the children of traditional method on the total and as well on all dimensions of emotional intelligence. This highlights the education intervention method having strong bearing on emotional development of the children. Further, the findings related to gender effect provides inconclusive results both with Montessori and traditional children. 


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



emotional intelligence, Montessori, traditional education


Aytaç, K. (1981). Contemporary Educational Movements Ankara: University of Ankara Faculty of Language, History and Geography Publications: 265.

Bar-On, R. (1997). Bar-On emotional quotient inventory: Technical manual. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.

Bar-On, R. (2000). Emotional and social intelligence: Insights from the emotional quotient inventory (EQ-i). In R. BarOn& J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of emotional intelligence (pp. 363–388). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Besançon, M. & Lubart, T. (2008). Differences in the development of creative competencies in children schooled in diverse learning environments. Learning and Individual Differences, 18, 381–389.

Bretherton, I., Fritz, J., Zahn-Waxler, C., & Ridgeway, D. (1986). Learning to talk about emotion: A functionalist perspective. Child Development, 57, 529–548.

Bower, B. (2006). Montessori learning aid. Science News, 170(14), 212.

Boyatzis, R.E. (2006). Using tipping points of emotional intelligence and cognitive competencies to predict financial performance of leaders. Psicothema, 18, 124-131.

Brackett, M., Mayer, J., & Warner, R. (2003). Emotional Intelligence and its relation to everyday behaviour. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(6), 1387-1402.

Castellanos, A. (2003). A comparison of traditional vs. Montessori education in relation to children’s self-esteem, self-efficacy and pro social behaviour. University Microfilms Publications: Carlos Albizu University.

Ciarrochi, J.V., Chan, A.Y.C. & Caputi, P. (2000). A critical evaluation of the emotional intelligence construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 28(3), 539-561.

DiLorenzo, L.T., Salter, R. & Brady, J.J. (1969). Pre-kindergarten programs for educationally disadvantaged children. Final report. Albany: State University of New York, State Education Department, Office of Research and Evaluation.

Dohrmann, K.R., Nishida, T.K., Gartner, A., Lipsky, D.K. & Grimm, K.J. (2007). High school outcomes for students in a public Montessori program. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 22, 205–217.

Dutta. J., Chetia. P, and Soni. J.C. (2015). A comparative study on emotional maturity of secondary school students in Lakhimpur and Sonitpur Districts of Assam. International Journal of Science and Research 4(9),

Elias, M.J., Bruene-Butler, L., Blum, L. & Schuyler, T. (1997). How to launch a social and emotional learning program. Educational Leadership, 54, 15–19. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.

Karnes, M., Shwedel, A. & Williams, M. (1983). A comparison of five approaches for educating young children from low-income homes. In As the twig is bent: lasting effects of preschool programs. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kohlberg, L. (1968). Early education: A cognitive-developmental view. Child development, 39(4). 1013- 1062.

Krafft, K.C. & Berk, L.E. (1998). Private speech in two preschools: Significance of open-ended activities and make-believe play for verbal self-regulation. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 13, 637–658.

Labouvie-Vief, DeVoe, and Bulka (1989). Speaking about Feeling: Conception of emotion across the life span. Psychology and Aging, 4, 425-437.

Lillard, A.S. & Else-Quest, N. (2006). The early years: Evaluating Montessori education. Science, 313, 1893–1894.

Lopata, C., Wallace, N. & Finn, K. (2005). Comparison of academic achievement between Montessori and traditional educational programs. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 20(1), 5-13.

Lopes, P.N., Brackett, M.A., Nezlek, J.B., Schütz, A. Sellin, I. & Salovey, P. (2004). Emotional intelligence and social interaction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(8), 1018-1034.

Lopes, P.N., Salovey, P. & Straus, R. (2003). Emotional intelligence, personality and the perceived quality of social relationships. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(3), 641-659

Mayer, J.D. & Geher. G (1996). Emotional intelligence and the identification of emotion. Intelligence, 22. 89-113.

Mayer, J. D. & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. Sluyter (Eds.): Emotional development and emotional intelligence: implications for educators (pp. 3-31). New York: Basic Books.

Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D., Sitarenios, G & Salovey, P. (2001). Emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence. Emotion, 1(3), pp.232-242.

Miller, L.B. & Bizzell, R.P. (1984). Long-term effects of four preschool programs: Ninth- and tenth-grade results. Child Development, 55, 1570-1587.

Mills. J. (2006). Affect, emotional intelligence and librarian‐user interaction. Library Review, Vol. 55 Iss: 9, pp.587 – 597.

Rathunde, K., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2005a). Middle school students’ motivation and quality of experience: A comparison of Montessori and traditional school environments. American Journal of Education, 111(3), 341- 371.

Parker, J.D., Sarlofske, D.H.; Shaughnessy, P.A.; and Huang, S. (2005). Generalizability of the emotional intelligence construct: A cross cultural study of North American aboriginal youth. Personality and individual differences, 39, 1, 215-227. (Psychological abstracts, 92, 11, pg- 3740).

Pasi, R.J. (1997). Success in high school and beyond. Educational Leadership, 54, 40–42.

Salovey, P. & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional Intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality 5(4).

Siaruchi, J., Forgass, J., and Mayer, J. (2004). Emotional intelligence in daily living. Translated by A. Noori Imamzadehi, and H.A Nasiri. (1383). Neveshte Press, Isfahan, Iran.

Shute, N. (2002). Madam Montessori. Smithsonian, 33(6), 70-75.

The International Montessori Index (1996).

Welsh, M., and Petty, R., (2007). Linkages between children's social and academic competence a longitudinal analysis. Journal of School Psychology, 39, 463–482.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Dhiksha J., Shivakumara K.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).