P. Mutuku Muasya, W. Felicita Njuguna, Martin Ogola


The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which instructional leadership practices by head teachers contribute to students’ academic performance. Machakos County was chosen for this study due to its low performance by many students in the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education Examination in most secondary schools in the recent years (2009-2013). Instructional leadership practices chosen were included defining the school mission, managing the school instructional programme, providing a conducive working climate and providing incentives for teaching and learning. The study applied Survey design. From 176 public secondary schools, stratified sampling technique was used to select 38 head teachers, 190 teachers and 345 students from among high and low performing secondary schools. The study used the Head Teacher Questionnaire (reliability 0.78), Teachers Questionnaire (reliability 0.74) and the students Questionnaire (reliability 0.75). The response was 87.5%. Multiple regression analysis was done to test the extent to which head teachers instructional practices influences on students’ performance, while linear regression was used to determine the most influential leadership practice. It was established that the Bowman and Deal’s leadership theory is applicable to Kenyan schools, with the provision of incentives for learning and teaching being the most important leadership practice towards the teaching and learning process.


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head teachers, regression analysis, mission, management, school working climate, incentives


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