EXPLORING THE INFLUENCE OF THE PATTERNS OF MOBILE INTERNET USE ON UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ NOMOPHOBIA LEVELS

Deniz Mertkan Gezgin

Abstract


The purpose of this study is to examine the supposed effects of the duration of the mobile internet ownership in terms of years, the duration of daily mobile internet use and monthly mobile internet quota variables on the nomophobia levels of University students. The study group consists of a total of 645 students, of whom are 429 female and 216 male, who are studying in different departments and come from different age groups. The Nomophobia Scale (NMP-Q) was used to determine the effect of variables on the nomophobia of university students. One-way ANOVA, simple and multiple regression analysis technique were used in the analysis of the data. Findings of the study showed that there was no significant difference between the duration of smartphone ownership and the level of nomophobia among college students, whereas the level of nomophobia was higher among the students who check the smartphone more frequently than during the day. Furthermore, according to the results of multiple regression analysis, variables such as duration of mobile internet ownership in terms of years, duration of daily mobile internet use and GSM mobile internet quota are predictive of the nomophobia prevalence of university students. Among these three variables, it is determined that the most predictive level of nomophobia is the daily mobile internet use.

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter

DOI

References


Adnan, M., & Gezgin, D. M. (2016). A Modern Phobia: Prevalence of Nomophobia among College Students [Modern Çağın Yeni Fobisi: Üniversite Öğrencileri Arasında Nomofobi Prevalansı]. Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences, 49(1), 141-158.

Ahmed, I., Ramzan, M., Qazi, T. F., & Jabeen, S. (2011). An investigation of mobile phone consumption patterns among students and professionals; is there any difference? European Journal of Economics, Finance & Administrative Sciences, 39, 136-143.

Akilli, G. K., & Gezgin, D. M. (2016). Examination of the Relationship between Nomophobia Levels and Different Behavior Patterns of University Students [Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Nomofobi Düzeyleri ile Farklı Davranış Örüntülerinin Arasındaki İlişkilerin İncelenmesi]. Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Journal of Education Faculty, 1(40).

Al-Barashdi, H. S., Bouazza, A., & Jabur, N. H. (2015). Smartphone addiction among university undergraduates: a literature review. Journal of Scientific Research & Reports, 4(3), 210-225.

Algül, R. (2014). Acı Badem University. The Disease of Technology Era [Acı Badem Üniversitesi. Teknoloji Çağının Hastalığı: Nomofobi]. Retrieved from http://www.acibadem.com.tr/Hayat/Bilgi/teknoloji-caginin-hastaligi-nomofobi on January 21, 2017.

Aljomaa, S. S., Qudah, M. F. A., Albursan, I. S., Bakhiet, S. F., & Abduljabbar, A. S. (2016). Smartphone addiction among university students in the light of some variables. Computers in Human Behavior, 61, 155-164.

Anshari, M., Alas, Y., Hardaker, G., Jaidin, J. H., Smith, M., & Ahad, A. D. (2016). Smartphone habit and behavior in Brunei: Personalization, gender, and generation gap. Computers in Human Behavior, 64, 719-727.

Ben-Yehuda, L., Greenberg, L., & Weinstein, A. (2016). Internet Addiction by Using the Smartphone-Relationships between Internet Addiction, Frequency of Smartphone Use and the State of Mind of Male and Female Students. Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome & Addiction Science, 2(1), 22-27.

Beranuy, M., Oberst, U., Carbonell, X., & Chamarro, A. (2009). Problematic Internet and mobile phone use and clinical symptoms in college students: The role of emotional intelligence. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(5), 1182-1187.

Bian, M., & Leung, L. (2015). Linking loneliness, shyness, smartphone addiction symptoms, and patterns of smartphone use to social capital. Social Science Computer Review, 33(1), 61-79.

Bragazzi, N. L., & Del Puente, G. (2014). A proposal for including nomophobia in the new DSM-V. Psychology Research & Behavior Management, 7, 155.

Casey, B. M. (2012). Linking psychological attributes to smartphone addiction, face-to-face communication, present absence and social capital (Unpublished Master’s thesis). The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Cheever, N. A., Rosen, L. D., Carrier, L. M., & Chavez, A. (2014). Out of sight is not out of mind: The impact of restricting wireless mobile device use on anxiety levels among low, moderate and high users. Computers in Human Behavior, 37, 290-297.

Chiu, S. I. (2014). The relationship between life stress and smartphone addiction on Taiwanese university student: A mediation model of learning self-efficacy and social self-efficacy. Computers in Human Behavior, 34, 49-57.

Choi, S.-W., Kim, D.-J., Choi, J.-S., Ahn, H., Choi, E.-J., Song, W.-Y....Youn, H. (2015). Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction. Journal of behavioral addictions, 4(4), 308-314.

Chóliz, M. M. (2010). Mobile Phone Addiction in Adolescence: Evaluation and Prevention of Mobile Addiction in Teenagers. Saarbrücken: Lambert Academic Publishing.

Chóliz, M. M. (2012). Mobile-phone addiction in adolescence: the test of mobile phone dependence (TMD). Progress in Health Sciences, 2(1), 33-44.

Dixit, S., Shukla, H., Bhagwat, A., Bindal, A., Goyal, A., Zaidi, A., & Shrivastava, A. (2010). A study to evaluate mobile phone dependence among students of a medical college and associated hospital of central India. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 35(2), 339-341.

Elhai, J. D., Levine, J. C., Dvorak, R. D., & Hall, B. J. (2016). Fear of missing out, need for touch, anxiety and depression are related to problematic smartphone use. Computers in Human Behavior, 63, 509-516.

Erdem, H., Kalkin, G., Turen, U., & Deniz, M. (2016). The Effects of No Mobile Phone Phobia (Nomofobi) on Academic Performance among Undergraduate Students [Üniversite Öğrencilerinde Mobil Telefon Yoksunluğu Korkusunun (nomofobi) Akademik Başarıya Etkisi]. Süleyman Demirel University. The Journal of Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, 21(3), 923-936.

Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS (2nd Ed.). London: Sage Publication.

Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (2006). How to design and evaluate research in education. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Gezgin, D. M., & Cakir, O. (2016). Analysis of nomophobic behaviors of adolescents regarding various factors. Journal of Human Sciences, 13(2), 2504-2519.

Gezgin, D. M., Cakir, O., & Yildirim, S. (2016, June). The Relationship between Levels of Nomophobia Prevalence and Internet Addiction among Adolescents [Ergenler arasında Nomofobi Yaygınlık Düzeyinin İnternet Bağımlılığı ile İlişkisi]. Paper presented at the 3rd International Eurasian Educational Research Congress, Ejer 2016, Muğla, Turkey.

Gezgin, D. M., Sahin, Y. L., & Yildirim, S. (2017). The Investigation of Social Network Users’ Nomophobia Levels regarding to various Factors [Sosyal Ağ kullanıcıları arasinda nomofobi yayginliğinin çeşitli faktörler açısından incelenmesi]. Educational Technology Theory and Practice, 7(1), 1-15.

Gezgin, D. M., Sumuer, E., Arslan, O., & Yildirim, S. (2017). Nomophobia Prevalence among Pre-service Teachers: A case of Trakya University [Öğretmen Adayları Arasında Nomofobi Yaygınlığı: Trakya Üniversitesi Örneği]. Trakya University Journal of Education Faculty, 7(1), 86-95.

Gupta, N., Garg, S., & Arora, K. (2016). Pattern of mobile phone usage and its effects on psychological health, sleep, and academic performance in students of a medical university. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy & Pharmacology, 6(2), 132-139.

Ha, J. H., Chin, B., Park, D. H., Ryu, S. H., & Yu, J. (2008). Characteristics of excessive cellular phone use in Korean adolescents. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11(6), 783-784.

Hetz, P. R., Dawson, C. L., & Cullen, T. A. (2015). Social media use and the fear of missing out (FoMO) while studying abroad. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 47(4), 259-272.

Hong, F.-Y., Chiu, S.-I., & Huang, D.-H. (2012). A model of the relationship between psychological characteristics, mobile phone addiction and use of mobile phones by Taiwanese University female students. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(6), 2152-2159.

Kalaskar, P. B. (2015). A study of awareness of development of NoMoPhobia condition in smartphone user management students in Pune city. INCON 2015. E-issn-2320-0065.

Kaur, A., & Sharma, P. (2015). A Descriptive Study to Assess the Risk of Developing Nomophobia among Students of Selected Nursing Colleges Ludhiana, Punjab. International Journal of Psychiatric Nursing, 1(2), 1-6

King, A. L. S., Valença, A. M., Silva, A. C., Baczynski, T., Carvalho, M. R., & Nardi, A. E. (2013). Nomophobia: dependency on virtual environments or social phobia? Computers in Human Behavior, 29(1), 140-144.

Krajewska-Kułak, E., Kułak, W., Stryzhak, A., Szpakow, A., Prokopowicz, W., & Marcinkowski, J. T. (2012). Problematic mobile phone using among the Polish and Belarusian University students, a comparative study. Progress in Health Sciences, 2(1), 45-50.

Kwon, M., Lee, J.-Y., Won, W.-Y., Park, J.-W., Min, J.-A., Hahn, C….Kim, D.-J. (2013). Development and validation of a smartphone addiction scale (SAS). PloS One, 8(2), e56936

Lapointe, L., Boudreau-Pinsonneault, C., & Vaghefi, I. (2013). Is smartphone usage truly smart? A qualitative investigation of IT addictive behaviors. In Proceedings of HICSS ‘13 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (pp. 1063-1072), IEEE Computer Society Washington, DC, USA.

Lee, U., Lee, J., Ko, M., Lee, C., Kim, Y., Yang, S....Song, J. (2014). Hooked on smartphones: an exploratory study on smartphone overuse among college students. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI 32nd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 2327-2336). ACM, New York, NY, USA.

Lee, Y., Chang, C., Lin, Y., & Cheng, Z. (2014). The dark side of smartphone usage: Psychological traits, compulsive behavior and technostress. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 373-383.

Lin, S. S. J., & Tsai, C.-C. (2002). Sensation seeking and internet dependence of Taiwanese high school adolescents. Computers in Human Behavior, 18(4), 411-426.

Newport, F. (2015) Most U.S. Smartphone Owners Check Phone at Least Hourly. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/poll/184046/smartphone-owners-check-phone-least-hourly.aspx on August 09, 2016.

Nielsen, P., & Fjuk, A. (2010). The reality beyond the hype: Mobile Internet is primarily an extension of PC-based Internet. The Information Society, 26(5), 375-382.

Okazaki, S., & Hirose, M. (2009). Does gender affect media choice in travel information search? On the use of mobile Internet. Tourism Management, 30(6), 794-804.

Oksman, V., & Turtiainen, J. (2004). Mobile communication as a social stage. The meanings of mobile communication among teenagers in Finland. New Media & Society, 6(3), 319-339.

Oulasvirta, A., Rattenbury, T., Ma, L., & Raita, E. (2012). Habits make smartphone use more pervasive. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 16(1), 105-114

Park, J. C., Hyun, S. J., & Ha, H. (2014). Comparison between the internet and mobile phone addiction of adolescent with structural equation model and dominance analysis. The Journal of Korean Association of Computer Education, 16(1), 11-22.

Park, W. K. (2005). Mobile phone addiction. In R. Ling & Per E. Pedersen (Eds.), Mobile communications (pp. 253-272). Springer: London.

Pavithra, M. B., Madhukumar, S., & Mahadeva, M. (2015). A Study on Nomophobia-Mobile Phone Dependence, Among Students of a Medical College in Bangalore. National Journal of Community Medicine, 6(3), 340-344.

Pellowe, E. L., Cooper, A., & Mattingly, B. A. (2015). Are Smart Phones Inhibiting Smartness? Smart Phone Presence, Mobile Phone Anxiety, and Cognitive Performance. Undergraduate Journal of Psychology, 28(1), 20-25.

Przybylski, A. K., Murayama, K., DeHaan, C. R., & Gladwell, V. (2013). Motivational, emotional, and behavioral correlates of fear of missing out. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(4), 1841-1848.

Salehan, M., & Negahban, A. (2013). Social networking on smartphones: When mobile phones become addictive. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(6), 2632-2639.

Sharma, N., Sharma, P., Sharma, N., & Wavare, R. R. (2015). Rising concern of nomophobia amongst Indian medical students. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 3(3), 705-707. doi:10.5455/2320-6012.ijrms20150333.

Shin, L. (2014). A Comparative Study of Mobile Internet Usage between the US and Korea. Journal of European Psychology Students, 5(3), 46-55.

Singh, B., Gupta, R., & Garg, R. (2013). Mobile Phones; A Boon or Bane for Mankind?-Behavior of Medical Students. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 2(4), 196-205.

Singh, J. D., & Yadav, R. A. (2015). Health Complications Caused By Excessive Use of Smartphones. Global Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 4(2), n.p.

Škařupová, K., Ólafsson, K., & Blinka, L. (2016). The effect of smartphone use on trends in European adolescents’ excessive Internet use. Behaviour & Information Technology, 35(1), 68-74.

Spitzer, M. (2015). Smartphones, Angst und Stress. Nervenheilkunde, 34, 591-600.

Szpakow, A., Stryzhak, A., & Prokopowicz, W. (2011). Evaluation of threat of mobile phone–addition among Belarusian University students. Progress in Health Sciences, 1(2), 96-100.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics (5th Ed.). Boston MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Takao, M., Takahashi, S., & Kitamura, M. (2009). Addictive personality and problematic mobile phone use. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12(5), 501-507.

Tavolacci, M. P., Meyrignac, G., Richard, L., Dechelotte, P., & Ladner, J. (2015). Problematic use of mobile phone and nomophobia among French college students. European Journal of Public Health, 25(suppl 3), ckv172-088.

Thomée, S., Härenstam, A., & Hagberg, M. (2011). Mobile phone use and stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression among young adults-a prospective cohort study. BMC Public Health, 11(66), n.p.

Uysal, Ş., Özen, H., & Madenoğlu, C. (2016). Social Phobia in Higher Education: The Influence of Nomophobia on Social Phobia. The Global e-learning Journal, 5(2), 1-8.

Van Deursen, A. J., Bolle, C. L., Hegner, S. M., & Kommers, P. A. (2015). Modeling habitual and addictive smartphone behavior: The role of smartphone usage types, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, age, and gender. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 411-420.

Walsh, S. P., White, K. M., & Young, R. M. (2008). Over-connected? A qualitative exploration of the relationship between Australian youth and their mobile phones. Journal of Adolescence, 31(1), 77-92.

Wang, J. L., Wang, H. Z., Gaskin, J., & Wang, L. H. (2015). The role of stress and motivation in problematic smartphone use among college students. Computers in Human Behavior, 53, 181-188.

Yildirim, C., & Correia, A.-P. (2015). Exploring the dimensions of nomophobia: Development and validation of a self-reported questionnaire. Computers in Human Behavior, 49, 130-137.

Yildirim, C., Sumuer, E., Adnan, M., & Yildirim, S. (2016). A growing fear: Prevalence of nomophobia among Turkish college students. Information Development, 32(5), 1322-1331.

Young, K. S. (1998). Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 1(3), 237-244.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v0i0.714

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Deniz Mertkan Gezgin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).