Mehmet Akif Helvaci, Emine Çavdar


The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable measure of change cynicism. In the development of the scale, literature regarding cynicism was examined and item pool was composed. For the content validation of the scale, draft of change cynicism scale was given to five experts. Having received feedback from the experts, the scale was ready for the plot practice with a sample group of 206 teachers and administrators in total. Following that, exploratory factor analysis was practised for construct validity and reliability analysis was conducted. Lastly, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the three-factor structure of the change cynicism with a different sample consisting of 434 teachers and 119 administrators. Change Cynicism Scale consisting of 17 items, each rated on five-point likert type scale was developed. Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient of the total scale was calculated as .94; and .90, .93, .84 for the sub-dimensions respectively. Total variance explained by change cynicism was 69%. All factor loadings were upper than 44. This showed that the scale was valid and reliable. The three-factor structure of scale was confirmed with confirmatory factor analysis. The model fit indices yielded a good fit to the three-factor structured model. 


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



organizational change cynicism scale, validity, reliability, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis


Abraham, R. (2000). Organizational Cynicism: Bases and Consequences. Genetic, Social and General Psychology Monographs, 126(3), 269-292.

Baz, M., Kaya, S. & Savaş, K. (2011). İşveren ve İş Gören İlişkileri. Uluslararası Hakemli Akademik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 1(1), 91-92.

Beauducel, A., & Wittmann, W. W. (2005). Simulation Study on Fit Indexes in CFA Based on Data with Slightly Distorted Simple Structure. Structural Equation Modeling, 12, 41-75, DOI: 10.1207/s15328007sem1201_3.

Brandes, P. (1997). Organizational Cynicism: its Nature, Antecedents, and Consequences. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Division of Research and Advanced Studies of the University of Cincinnati, USA.

Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2003). Veri Analizi El Kitabı. (2.Basım). Ankara: Pegem A Yayıncılık.

Doğan, İ. (1998). İletişim ve Yabancılaşma.Yazılı Kültürümüzde ilkler. İstanbul: Sistem Yayıncılık.

Feldman, D.C. (2000). The Dilbert Syndrome: How Employee Cynicism about Ineffective Management is Changing the Nature of Careers in Organizations. American Behavioral Scientist, 43(8), 1286-1300.

Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (1996). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Hu, L.T. and Bentler, P.M. (1999), "Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria Versus New Alternatives," Structural Equation Modeling, 6 (1), 1-55.

Kanter, D. L. and Mirvis, P. H. (1989). The Cynical Americans: Living and Working in an Age of Discontent and Disillusion. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Karasar, N. (2009). Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemi. Ankara: Nobel Yayıncılık.

Kline, P. (1994). An Easy Guide to Factor Analysis. New York, NY: Routledge.

Korkut, A. & Aslan, M. (2016). Organizational Cynicism Levels of Teachers in Secondary Schools in Turkey. E-International Journal of Educational Research, 7(2), 91-112. DOI:10.19160/e-ijer.85959.

Laursen, B., Little, T. D. & Card, N. A. (Eds.) (2012). Handbook of Developmental Research Methods. New York: Guilford.

Metin, M., Kaleli Yılmaz, G., Coşkun, K., Birişci, S. (2012). Developing an Attitude Scale towards Using Instructional Technologies for pre-service teachers, TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 11 (1), 36-45.

Mishra, A. K., & Spreitzer, G. M. (1998). Explaining How Survivors Respond to Downsizing: The Role of Trust, Empowerment, Justice and Work Redesign. Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 567–588.

Pasmore, W.A. (2011). Tipping the Balance: Overcoming Persistent Problems İn Organizational Change. In A.B. Shani (Rami), R.W. Woodman W.A. Pasmor(eds), Research in Organizational Change and Development. Vol.19.Bingley: Emerald, pp.259-292.

Polat, S. ve Güngör, G. (2014). Relationship between Organizational Change Cynicism and Some Variables in Turkish Public Schools. Anthropologist, 18(3), 1019-1027.

Polatcan, M. ve Titrek, O. (2013). The Relationship Between Leadership Behaviors of School Principals and their organizational Cynicism Attitudes. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 141, 1291-1303.

Rainey, H. (2003). Understanding and Managing Public Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Reichers, A. E., Wanous, J.P. and Austin, J. T. (1997). Understanding and Managing Cynicism about Organizational Change. Academy of Management Executive, 11(1), 48-59.

Schreiber JB, Nora A, Stage FK, Barlow EA, King J. (2006). Reporting Structural Equation Modeling and Confirmatory Factor Analysis Results: A Review. The Journal of Educational Research, 99(6): 323-38.

Sezgin, O. B., Tolay, E., ve Sürgevil, O. (2016). Örgütsel Değişim Sinizmi: Çalışanların Değişime Karşı Tutumlarının İncelenmesine Yönelik Nitel Bir Araştırma. Marmara Üniversitesi Öneri Dergisi, 12(45), 411-438.

Shapiro, E.C. (1996). The Glow and Tingle Audit. The Wall Street Journal, January, 26.

Tolay, E., Sürgevil, O. ve Sezgin, O.B. (2015). Örgütsel Değişim Sinizmi Ölçeği: Ölçek Geliştirme, Güvenirlik ve Geçerlilik Çalışması. 23. Ulusal Yönetim ve Organizasyon Kongresi, Muğla.

Vance, R. J., Brooks, S. M. & Tesluk, P. E. (1996). Organizational Cynicism, Cynical Cultures, and Organizational Change. Unpublished manuscript, Center for Applied Behavioral Sciences, Pennsylvania State University.

Wanous, J. P., Reichers, A. E., & Austin, J. T. (1994). Or¬ganizational Cynicism: An Initial Study. Academy of Ma¬nagement Best Papers Proceedings, 269-273.

Wanous, J. P., Reichers, A. E.,& Austin, J. T. (2000).Cynicism About OrganizationChange: Measurement, Antecedents and Correlates. Group and Organization Management, 25(2), 132-153.

Weick, K. E., & Quinn, R. E. (1999). Organizational Change and Development. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 361-386.

Wrightsman, L. S. (1991). Interpersonal Trust and Attitudes toward Human Nature. In J. P. Robinson, P. R. Shaver, & L. S. Wrightsman (Eds.), Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes (pp. 373-412). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Mehmet Akif Helvaci, Emine Çavdar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).