Caleb Imbova Mackatiani


This paper provides a critical appraisal of quantity primary education in Kenya as motivated by universal primary education (UPE), Education for all (EFA) and millennium development goals (MDGs) and the influence quality primary education in Kenya. Globally, primary education is recognized as the cornerstone of any country with stable economy. Bearing in mind the role played by education in development, the United Nations (UN) general assembly in 1948 endorsed education as a fundamental human right. The main objective of the study was to analyze the influence of physical facilities on quality of primary education in Kenya. The paper further examined the role played by United Nations in democratization of education globally in general and Africa in particular. The paper further assessed prospects that have arisen in Kenya because of universalizing education in the world. It therefore focused on the issue of quality education after the attainment of education For All (EFA) goal and the Jomtien conference of 1990. The study surveyed the definition of quality education as advanced by United Nations Education scientific and cultural organization (UNESCO) and United Nations children education fund (UNICEF). It also analyzed challenges that arose due to upsurge of enrolment in primary schools. Particular attention was given to the crises in inputs and processes that affect the output of quality primary education. These crises are reflected in class size and physical resources that influence quality education. The paper adopted mixed method approach. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches to research were used. Descriptive survey design was used to collect data from three sets of questionnaires. The target population comprised of head teachers and teachers Kakamega County has got 800 primary schools. Using the sampling guide developed by Krejcie and Morgan (1970), a sample size of 36 primary schools, (three per Sub County) was selected. 36 head teachers (one head teacher per school) were therefore sampled. 4 teachers per school were randomly selected from the 36 sampled primary schools. The sample size for teachers was therefore 144. The total sample size for the study was 180.This was to conform to the confidence Interval of 0.05, confidence level of 95 percent which is a Z-score of 1.96 and standard of deviation of 0.5. The reliability was estimated through use of Cranach's Alpha Coefficient using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0. Findings of the study are significant to Kenya in particular and sub Saharan Africa in general as they would be assisted to redress challenges of quality education arising from universal primary education and education for all. The findings might help the policy formulators formulate education policies and the legal framework which are geared towards quantitative and qualitative primary education. The policy implementers would understand and appreciate education policies within which they are supposed to operate in providing effective leadership and management practices in the implementation of quality education at primary level. The entire education stakeholders would understand how to address quality issues which arise due to upsurge of enrolment. This paper is significant to the field of comparative and International education, since it provides data on what the Kenyan government is doing in promoting the development of qualitative primary education. This study has established that there is legislation to embrace qualitative free primary education. However, implementation of education policy to ensure quality is crucial. It is therefore recommended that proper structures be put in place to enable achievement of quality primary education. The study also established that the government of Kenya has set a bench mark for class enrolment as 45 pupils per class. However, due to high enrolment, physical facilities are strained and they have negatively impacted on quality primary education. It is therefore recommended that the government should actualize her obligation on provision of adequate physical facilities in primary schools. From the findings of the study, there is evidence of internal inefficiency in schools. The issue of inefficiency has not been seriously addressed by the government. It is there recommended that the government should come up with clear policy to redress inefficiency in primary schools.

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access, quality education, primary education, legal framework


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