Valentine Banfegha Ngalim


This paper sets out to investigate profound pedagogic differences existing in the two sub-systems of secondary education in Cameroon. The problem identified here is that there are profound differences in the curricular contents of the two sub-systems of education in Cameroon. The central arguments in this paper have been articulated within the context of Von Bertanlaffy’s general system theory, John Dewey’s theory of democratic education, Rousseau’s social contract theory and James Banks’ multicultural education theory. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of research have been used in this study. Questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussions and participant observation constituted the research instruments. A thematic analysis supported by descriptive statistics was used within the context of interpretative approach of hermeneutic phenomenology. This research offers a different model for curricular organization in Cameroon taking into consideration perspectives of equity in democratic education. It argues that changes have to be effected in favour of a democratic conception of education. This is precisely because education is the means to construct the type of society appropriate for a harmonious relationship. Findings prove that pedagogic discrepancies obstruct the process of equity and quality education. This paper concludes that in order to ensure fairness and quality in the provision of educational values, a suspension of prejudices is imperative in order to establish a school curriculum proper to Cameroon irrespective of the colonial identities we assume. 


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



pedagogic discrepancies; educational system; Dewey’s democratic education


Banks, J. A. (1994). An Introduction to Multicultural Education. Boston, Allyn & Bacon.

Banks, J. A. (2001). Cultural Diversity and Education: Foundations, Curriculum and Teaching. Boston, Allyn & Bacon.

Deledalle, G., (1995). John Dewey: Pedagogue et Pédagogies. Paris, PUF.

Dewey, J. (1966). Democracy and Education: An Introduction to Philosophy of Education. New York, Free Paper Press.

Dworkin, M.S. (ed.), (1972). Dewey in Education. New York, Delta Publishing.

Fonkeng, G. E. (2007). The History of education in Cameroon: 1884-2004. Queenstown Lampester, New York, The Edwin Mellen Press.

Fonkoua, P. et al. (eds.), (2007). Elements d’education a la morale et a la citoyennete au Cameroun. Rocare Cameroun, editions terroirs.

Fonlon, B. N. (1965). “Will we make or mar” [Construire ou détruire ?], Abbia, n.5, p.45-46.

Fonlon, B.N. (ed.), (1982). Abbia: Cameroon Cultural Review.Nos.38, 39, 40. Yaounde, Ceper.

Forbi, S. K. (2004). Rainbow of Educational Philosophies: Methods and Models. Indiana, Bloomington.

Glaser, B. G. & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Chicago, Aldine de Gruter.

Goddard, R. D. & Villanova, D. (1996). Designing Surveys and Questionnaires for Research. In Leong, F. T. & Austin, J. F. (eds.),

Gordon, M. (ed.), (2001). Hannah Arendt and Education: Renewing Our Common World. Boulder Colorado, Westview Press.

Granesse, A. (1999). « Pensée Critique et éducation » in Houssaye, J. (ed.), Éducation et philosophie, Paris E.S.F

Grawitz, M. (1976). Methodes des Sciences Sociales. Paris, CEDEX.

Houssaye, J. (1999). « Pour une définition de la pédagogie » in Develay, M. (ed.). Manifeste pour les Pédagogues. (collection). Paris, ESF.

http://educationstateuniveducationsystem_overview (assessed 14th October 2012).

Leke, T.I. (2003). Principles and Method in Teaching: Application in Cameroonian school. ANUCAM, University of Buea.

Mvesso, A. (2005). Pour une nouvelle education au Cameroun; Les fondements d’une ecole citoyen du developpement. Yaounde, Presses Universitaire de Yaounde.

Nelson, J. L., Palonsky, S. B., & McCarthy, M. R. (2006). Critical issues in education: Dialogue and dialectics. New York, McGrawHill.

Ngalim, V. B. (2014a). Lack of Harmonization in the Curricula of Secondary Education in Cameroon. Saarbrueken, Scholars Press.

Ngalim. V. (2014b). “Harmonization of the Educational Sub-systems in Cameroon: A Multicultural Perspective for Democratic Education” in Creative Education, Vol. 5. No.5. (334-375).

Parker, P. (2003). Teaching Democracy: Unity and Diversity in Public Life, New York, Teachers’ College.

Rawls, J. (1999). A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Reboul, O. (1989). La Philosophie de l’Education. Paris, PUF.

Reboul, O. (1995). Qu’est-ce qu’apprendre? Paris, Presse Universitaire de France.

Rousseau, J. (1947). The Social Contract. Charles, F. (Ed.). New York, Harper Press.

Socrates, (2003). Equity of the European Educational System: A Set of Indicators. Brussel, European Commission.

Soetard, M. (2001). Qu’est que la pédagogie : le pédagogue au risque de la philosophie. Hartmann, ESF.

Tchombe, M. T. (1999). “Structural Reforms in Education in Cameroon” retrieved from (Accessed 15/03/2012).



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Valentine Banfegha Ngalim

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).