PUPIL-TEACHER RATIO AND ITS IMPACT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN CENTRAL DIVISION, MACHAKOS COUNTY, KENYA

Kaloki Joseph Waita, Kasau Onesmus Mulei, Kitoo Beth Mueni, Mutinda Julius Mutune, Jeremiah Kalai

Abstract


The objectives of this study were (a) to assess the impact of PTR on academic performance in national examinations in public primary schools (b) establish if ideal PTR exist in public primary schools as recommended by TSC, UNESCO and other international standards. (c) to identify the major challenges faced in the attainment of appropriate PTR in the public schools in the Division. (d) to determine whether PTR influences academic performance. The study targeted the 78 public primary schools in which a total of 24 schools were sampled for the study. Descriptive survey design was used as the research design for the study. Questionnaires were used in collecting data for the study. The analysis involved use of simple regression to determine whether PTR predicts performance in national examinations. The relationship between PTR and performance was worked out using Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient R, the value of R calculated was -0.323. This negative correlation between the PTR and performance indicated that as PTR increases performance decreases and vice versa. A coefficient of determination R2 of 0.104 was obtained. This revealed that 10.4% of the performance is due to PTR while the remaining 89.6 % is due to other intervening factors or error in the independent variable. An Anova table was generated (p<0.05) which indicated that the regression model applied was significantly good enough in predicting the outcome variable. A regression model [scores = 260.8-7.60(PTR)] was generated that could be used to predict the outcome variable. The findings of the study revealed that PTR significantly influences performance of pupils in national examinations. The study recommended to all Education sector stakeholders to pay adequate attention to PTR since it affects performance of pupils in Primary Schools. It recommended to the government to employ more teachers to lower PTR and ease teacher workload. It also recommended to the government and the MOE to review the Education Act to enable schools admit pupils on basis of PTR to avoid over enrolment and congestion in classrooms.

 

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Keywords


pupil-teacher ratio, performance, impact, class size, contract teacher

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