Kok Hwee Chia, Jennifer Erin Camulli


The aim of this paper, especially written for educational therapists, is twofold. First, it is to provide educational therapists a systematic symptomatological-nosological framework to identify or distinguish learning disruptions (LDs) and/or behavioral disruptions (BDs) ranging from their simplicity per se based on their respective triad of key symptoms/impairments up to multiple complexity of LDs and BDs. Second, it is also to help educational therapists as well as other allied professionals in the field of special education to identify and categorize all different LDs and BDs amidst the wide spectrum of diverse types and subtypes with varying degrees of severity. In this way, with a more accurate identification of LD/BD, an appropriate intervention plan can be designed to treat the disability/disorder concerned, instead of just having a name and a list of symptoms associated with a specific LD and/or BD, which is no longer an efficient way of identifying disabilities/disorders. In the current millennium of the 21st century, new research studies, especially with the emerging of the Science of Complexity, are uncovering the complexities as well as multiplexities behind all the challenging issues associated with LDs and/or BDs.    


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejse.v0i0.1173

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