A PROPOSED SYMPTOMATOLOGICAL-NOSOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR LEARNING AND BEHAVIORAL DISRUPTIONS: WHAT EDUCATIONAL THERAPISTS SHOULD KNOW FROM DISABILITIES/DISORDERS PER SE TO MULTIPLEX DISABILITIES/DISORDERS

Kok Hwee Chia, Jennifer Erin Camulli

Abstract


The aim of this paper, especially written for educational therapists, is twofold. First, it is to provide educational therapists a systematic symptomatological-nosological framework to identify or distinguish learning disruptions (LDs) and/or behavioral disruptions (BDs) ranging from their simplicity per se based on their respective triad of key symptoms/impairments up to multiple complexity of LDs and BDs. Second, it is also to help educational therapists as well as other allied professionals in the field of special education to identify and categorize all different LDs and BDs amidst the wide spectrum of diverse types and subtypes with varying degrees of severity. In this way, with a more accurate identification of LD/BD, an appropriate intervention plan can be designed to treat the disability/disorder concerned, instead of just having a name and a list of symptoms associated with a specific LD and/or BD, which is no longer an efficient way of identifying disabilities/disorders. In the current millennium of the 21st century, new research studies, especially with the emerging of the Science of Complexity, are uncovering the complexities as well as multiplexities behind all the challenging issues associated with LDs and/or BDs.    

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter

DOI

Keywords


behavior, complex, disruption, learning, multiplex, syndrome

References


Ad-Dab’Bagh, Y., & Greenfield, B. (2001). Multiple complex developmental disorder: The “mutilple and complex” evolution of childhood borderline syndrome construct. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(8), 954-964.

American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5®). Arlington, VA: The Author.

Chia, K.H. (1995). Callosal agenesis: A need to understand and help acallosal children. Education Today, 45(2), 34-38.

Chia, K.H. (2015). Learning disabilities: From operating definition to operational application. Paper presented at the UnITE SpLD Conference, June 26, Singapore.

Chia, K.H., Kee, K.N., & Lim, B.H. (2015). Effective working with parents of children with disabilities in Singapore: A proposed practitioner three-component model. In S. Bowman (Ed.), Special education: developments, teaching strategies and parental involvement (pp.143-172). New York, NY: Nova Publishers.

Chia, K. H., Lim, B. H., & Lee, B. M. (2017). Reframing our understanding of inappropriate behavior and/or feelings disorders: What educational therapists, special educators and counselors should know and understand. European Journal of Social Sciences Studies, 2(7), 48-79.

Chia, K.H., & Wong, M.E. (2010). Psycho-Educational Diagnostic Profiling & Evaluation: A Workbook for Mainstream, Allied & Special Educators (Vol.1) (pp. 5-10). Singapore: Pearson Education.

Children and Young People’s Health Services (2015). Deficits in attention and motor perception (DAMP). Cambridgeshire, UK: Cambridgeshire Community Services NHS Trust.

D’Souza, S., & Renner, D. (2015). Not knowing: The art of turning uncertainty into opportunity. London, UK: LID Publishing.

Donohue, A., & Harrington, C. (2001). La belle indifference: medical myth or useful marker of psychiatric disease. Medicine and health, Rhode Island, 84(6), 207.

Gillberg, C. (2003). Deficits in attention, motor control and perception: A brief review. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 88, 904-910.

Hoo, L.P. (2014). A psycho-educational framework for conversion reaction syndrome: A subtype of dyslexia. Journal of Reading and Literacy, 6, 7-12.

Interdisciplinary Council for Developmental and Learning Disorders (2017). Psychodynamic diagnostic manual-second edition (PDM-2). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Johnson, N. (2010). Simply complexity: A clear guide to complexity theory. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Book.

Landgren, M., Kjellman, B., & Gillberg, C. (2000). Deficits in attention, motor control and perception (DAMP): A simplified school entry examination. Acta Paediatrica, 89, 302-309.

Lee, B.M., Lim, B.H., & Chia, K.H. (2017a). The six levels of behavioral profile types: From behavioral disadvantages to behavioral disorder. European Journal of Social Sciences Studies, 2(8), 56-70.

Lee, B.M., Lim, B.H., & Chia, K.H. (2017b). A case study of a child with learning and behavioral challenges. A teacher training workshop held at Macau Anglican College on October 13.

National Health & Medical Research Council (1990). Learning difficulties in children and adolescents. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (1994). Learning disabilities: Issues on definition. Collective perspectives on issues affecting learning disabilities: Position papers and statements (pp.61–66). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) (2008). Gerstmann Syndrome. Retrieved on April 4th, 2016, from: http://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/gerstmann-syndrome/#investigational-therapies.

Northampton Center for Learning Behavior (2012). What is learning behavior? Retrieved October 19, 2017, from: http://www.ncflb.com/aboutus/learningbehaviour/#

PDM Task Force (2006). Psychodynamic diagnostic manual. Silver Spring, MD: Alliance of Psychoanalytic Organizations.

Pilu, G., & Nicolaides, K.H. (1999). Diagnosis of fetal abnormalities: The 18-23-week scan. New York: Parthenon Publishing.

Rice, D. G., & Greenfield, N. S. (1969). Psychophysiological correlates of la belle indifference. Archives of General Psychiatry, 20(2), 239-245.

Rosen, L.R., Cheever, N.A., & Carrier, L.M. (2012). iDisorder: Understanding our obsession with technology and overcoming its hold on us. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Rydelius, P-A. (2000). DAMP and MBD versus AD/HD and hyperkinetic disorders. Acta Paediatrica, 89, 266-268.

Sykes, S.C. (2009). Learning disability. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://docsykes.com/learningdisability/ld.htm.

Tan, U. (2006). A new syndrome with quadrupedal gait, primitive speech, and severe mental retardation as a live model for human evolution. Internal Journal of Neuroscience, 116(3), 361-369.

Voss, A., Cash, H., Hurdiss, S., Bishop, F., Klam, W.P., & Doan, A.P. 92015). Case report: Internet gaming disorder associated with pornography use. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 88, 319-324.

World Health Organization (1992). International classification of diseases and related health problems-10th revision (ICD-10). Geneva, Switzerland: The Author.




Copyright © 2015. European Journal of Special Education Research (ISSN 2501 - 2428) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).