COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION OF STUDENTS WITH ADHD AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: A BRIEF REVIEW OF STUDIES CONDUCTED BETWEEN 1993 AND 2016, AND COMMENTS

George Botsas, George Grouios

Abstract


Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) is an instructional context that uses a computer as the mean for teaching pupils in individualized settings. CAI has been proposed as a compensatory instructional strategy among others for pupils with attentional, impulsivity and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This brief literature review synthesizes the outcomes of CAI to improve academic performance in various school disciplines for children with ADHD. First, it addresses research that studies the impact on academic disciplines performance of elementary school individuals with ADHD. Second, it considers methodological and pedagogical aspects of the studies reviewed. Finally, comments and recommendations, either in instructional and research context are made. Most of the studies reviewed suggested that CAI is an effective strategy in order to improve academic skills of pupils with ADHD. Moreover, an improvement in on-task and a decrease on error and off-task behaviors emerged as a byproduct of CAI intervention in some of those studies. 

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter

DOI

Keywords


ADHD, Computer assisted instruction, academic performance, brief review, comments

References


Alper, S. & Raharinirina, S. (2006). Assistive technology for individuals with disabilities: A review and synthesis of the literature. Journal of Special Education Technology, 21(2), 47-64. doi: 10.1177/016264340602100204

American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fifth edition (DSM-V). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Pub.

American Psychological Association (2010). Guidelines for nonhandicapping language in APA journals. Retrieved 26/10/2017 from http://www.apastyle.org/manuals/related/nonhandicapping-language.aspx

*Andreou, G., Riga, A., & Papayiannis, N. (2016). Information and Communication Technologies and the impact of gender on the writing performance of students with ADHD. Themes in Science and Technology Education, 9(1), 25-41. Retrieved from http://earthlab.uoi.gr/ojs/theste/index.php/theste/article/view/200/119.

Aslan, S., & Reigeluth, C. M. (2011). A trip to the past and future of educational computing: Understanding its evolution. Contemporary Educational Technology, 2, 1–17. Retrieved from http://www.cedtech.net/articles/21/211.pdf

Ayres, K. M., Mechling, L., & Sansosti, F. J. (2013). The use of mobile technologies to assist with life skills/independence of students with moderate/severe intellectual disability and/or autism spectrum disorders: Considerations for the future of school psychology. Psychology in the Schools, 50, 259–271. doi: 10.1002/pits.21673

Barkley, R. A. (2006). Attention – Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. A handbook for diagnosis and treatment, 3rd ed. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Bayraktar, S. (2001). A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction in science education. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 34(2), 173-188. doi: 10.1080/15391523.2001.10782344

Bender, R.L., & Bender, W.N. (1996). Computer – Assisted Instruction for students at risk for ADHD, mild disabilities, or academic problems, Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Benjamin, L. T. (1988). A history of teaching machines. American Psychologist, 43, 703–712. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.43.9.703

*Bennett, D.E., Zentall, S.Z., French, B.F., & Giorgetti-Borucki, K. (2006). The effects of computer-administered choice on students with and without characteristics of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Behavioral Disorders, 31(2), 189-203.

Blok, H., Oostdam, R., Otter, M. E., & Overmaat, M. (2002). Computer-assisted instruction in support of beginning reading instruction: A review. Review of Educational Research, 72(1), 101-130. doi: 10.3102/00346543072001101

*Bostian, A. (2011). Effects of a computer-assisted intervention in second graders with attention and literacy problems. (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://thescholarship.ecu.edu/bitstream/handle/10342/3527/Bostian_ecu_0600M_10363.pdf

*Botsas, G. (2015). Computer-Assisted Instruction of mathematical operations in ADHD and typical students. The online learning experience. (Master's thesis. Aristotle’s University of Thessaloniki). Retrieved from http://ikee.lib.auth.gr/record/269773/files/GRI-2015-14655.pdf

*Bouhouna, S. (2011). Computer's use and motivation on problem-solving tasks: The case of ADHD children. (Master's thesis. Aristotle's University of Thessaloniki) [in Greek]. Retrieved from http://ikee.lib.auth.gr/record/126229/files/GRI-2011-6479.pdf

Brand, S., Dunn, R., & Greb, F. (2002). Learning styles of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: who are they and how can we teach them? Clearing House, 75, 268-274. doi: 10.1080/00098650209603953

Carrier, M. L., Black, V., Vasquez, L., Miller, A.D., & Rosen, L.D. (2015). Executive function in risky online behaviors by adolescents and young adults. In L.D. Rosen, N.A. Cheever & L.M. Carrier (Eds.), The Wiley handbook of psychology, technology, and society (pp. 119-141). Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

*Clarfield, J., & Stoner, G. (2005). The effects of computerized reading instruction on the academic performance of students identified with ADHD. School Psychology Review, 34(2), 246-254.

*Cullen, J., Keesey, S., Alber – Morgan, S., & Wheaton, J. (2013). The effects of computer-assisted instruction using Kurzweil 3000 on sight word acquisition for students with mild disabilities. Education and Treatment of Children, 36(2), 87-103.

Daly, B. P., Creed, T., Xanthopoulos, M., & Brown, R. T. (2007). Psychosocial treatments for children with Attention – Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder. Neuropsychology Review, 17, 73-89. doi: 10.1007/s11065-006-9018-2

*Doughty, T. T., Bouck, E. C., Bassette, L., Szwed, K., & Flanagan, S. (2013). Spelling on the fly: Investigating a pentop computer to improve the spelling skills of three elementary students with disabilities. Assistive Technology, 25(3), 166-175. doi: 10.1080/10400435.2012.743491

DuPaul, G. J., & Eckert, T. L. (1997). Academic interventions for students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A review of the literature. Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, 14(1), 59-82. doi: 10.1080/1057356980140104

DuPaul, G. J., & Langberg, J. M. (2014). Educational impairments in children with ADHD. In R. Barkley (Ed.), Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (4th ed.). New York: Guilford.

DuPaul, G. J., & Stoner, G. (2003). ADHD in the schools: Assessment and intervention strategies (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

DuPaul, G. J., & Volpe, R. J. (2009). ADHD and learning disabilities: Research findings and clinical implications. Current Attention Disorders Reports, 1(4), 152-155. doi: 10.1007/s12618-009-0021-4

DuPaul, G. J., & Weyandt, L. L. (2006). School‐based intervention for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: effects on academic, social, and behavioral functioning. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 53(2), 161-176. doi: 10.1080/10349120600716141

DuPaul, G. J., Eckert, T. L., & Vilardo, B. (2012). The effects of school-based interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis 1996-2010. School Psychology Review, 41(4), 387-412.

Edybrun, D. L. (2013). Critical issues in advancing the special education technology evidence base. Exceptional Children, 80(1), 7-24. doi: 10.1177/001440291308000107

Fitzgerald, G, Fick, L., & Milich, R. (1986). Computer – Assisted Instruction for students with attentional difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 19(6), 376-379. doi: 10.1177/002221948601900614

Fitzgerald, G., Koury, K., & Mitchem, K. (2008). Research on computer-mediated instruction for students with high incidence disabilities. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 38(2), 201-233. doi: 10.2190/EC.38.2.e

Ford, M. J., Poe, V., & Cox, J. (1993). Attending behaviors of ADHD children in math and reading using various types of software. Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, 4, 183–196.

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlet, C. L., Powell, S. R., Capizzi, A. M., & Seethaler, P. M. (2006). The effects of computer-assisted instruction on number combination skill in at-risk first graders. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(5), 467-475. doi: 10.1177/00222194060390050701

Gersten, R., Fuchs, L.S., Compton, D., Coyne, M., Greenwood, C. & Innocenti, M. E. (2005). Quality indicators for group experimental and quasi-experimental research in special education. Exceptional Children, 71(2), 149-164. doi: 10.1177/001440290507100202

Graham, L. J. (2006). Caught in the net: A Foucaultian interrogation of the incidental effects of limited notions of inclusion. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 10(1), 3-25. doi: 10.1080/13603110500173217

Gravois, T. A., & Gickling, E. E. (2002). Best practices in curriculum-based assessment. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology IV (Vol. 2, pp. 885–898). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

Hall, T. E., Hughes, C. A., & Filbert, M. (2000). Computer-assisted instruction in reading for students with learning disabilities: A research synthesis. Education and Treatment of Children, 173-193. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/42940524

*Kang, H. W., & Zentall, S. S. (2011). Computer-generated geometry instruction: A preliminary study. Educational Technology Research and Development, 59(6), 783-797. doi: 10.1007/s11423-011-9186-5

*Kingham, P.H., & Blackmore, A.M. (2003). Computer-based instruction in blending is effective for year 2 children with reading difficulties. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 8(1), 30-37. doi: 10.1080/19404150309546721

Kolić-Vehovec, S. (2002). Effects of self-monitoring training on reading accuracy and fluency of poor readers. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 17, 129-138. doi: 10.1007/BF03173254

*Koscinski, S.T., & Gast, D.L. (1993). Computer – Assisted Instruction with constant time delay to teach multiplication facts to students with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 8(3), 157-168. doi: 10.1177/002221949302600807

Kowalski, R. M., & Whittaker, E. (2015). Cyberbullying: prevalence, causes and consequences. In L.D. Rosen, N.A. Cheever & L.M. Carrier (Eds.), The Wiley handbook of psychology, technology, and society (pp. 142-157). Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Kroesbergen, E. H., & Van Luit, J. E. (2003). Mathematics interventions for children with special educational needs: A meta-analysis. Remedial and Special Education, 24(2), 97-114. doi: 10.1177/07419325030240020501

Kulik, C-L., C & Kulik, J.A. (1991). Effectiveness of Computer-Based Instruction: An updated analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 7, 75-94. doi: 10.1016/0747-5632(91)90030-5

Kulik, J.A., Kulik, C-L, C., & Bangert – Drowns, R.L. (1985). Effectiveness of Computer-Based Education in Elementary Schools. Computers in Human Behavior, 1, 59-74. doi: 10.1016/0747-5632(85)90007-X

Lewandowski, L., Wood, W., & Miller, L.A. (2016). Technological applications for individuals with learning disabilities and ADHD. In J.K. Luiselli & A.J. Fischer (Eds.), Computer-assisted and web-based innovations in psychology, special education, and health (pp. 61-94). London, UK: Academic Press.

Liao, Y. K. C. (2007). Effects of computer-assisted instruction on students’ achievement in Taiwan: A meta-analysis. Computers & Education, 48(2), 216-233. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2004.12.005

Liu, M., Moore, Z., Graham, L., & Lee, S. (2002). A look at the research on computer-based technology use in second language learning: A review of the literature from 1990–2000. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 34(3), 250-273. doi: 10.1080/15391523.2002.10782348

*Mautone, J. A., DuPaul, G. J., & Jitendra, A. K. (2005). The effects of computer-assisted instruction on the mathematics performance and classroom behavior of children ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 9(1), 301-312. doi: 10.1177/1087054705278832

*McClanahan, B., Williams, K., Kennedy, E., & Tate, S. (2012). A breakthrough for Josh: How use of an iPad facilitated reading improvement. TechTrends, 56(3), 20-28. doi: 10.1007/s11528-012-0572-6

McDuffy, K. (2009). Effectiveness of a computer literacy intervention for young children with attention and reading problems. (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://thescholarship.ecu.edu/bitstream/handle/10342/2686/McDuffy_ecu_0600M_10093.pdf

Means, B., Penuel, W., & Padilla, C. (2001). The connected school. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

*Nordness, P.D., Haverkost, A., & Volberding, A. (2011). An examination of hand – held computer-assisted instruction on subtraction skills for second-grade students with learning and behavioral disabilities. Journal of Special Education Technology, 26(4), 15-24. doi:10.1177/016264341102600402

*Ota, K.R., & DuPaul, G.J. (2002). Task engagement and mathematics performance in children with Attention – Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: Effects of supplemental computer instruction. School Psychology Quarterly, 17(3), 242-257. doi: 10.1521/scpq.17.3.242.20881

Pennington, R. C. (2010). Computer-assisted instruction for teaching academic skills to students with autism spectrum disorders: A review of literature. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 25(4), 239-248. doi: 10.1177/1088357610378291

Raggi, V. L., & Chronis, A. M. (2006). Intervention to address the academic impairment of children and adolescents with ADHD. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 9(2), 85-111. doi: 10.1007/s10567-006-0006-0

*Regan, E., Berkeley, S., Hughes, M., & Kirby, S. (2014). Effect of computer-assisted instruction for struggling elementary readers with disabilities. The Journal of Special Education, 48(2), 106-119. doi: 10.1177/0022466913497261

*Reid, M. S. (2000). The effects of teacher-and computer-directed instruction on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database (UMI No. 9973918).

Rieth, H. J., & Semmel, M. I. (1991). Use of computer-assisted instruction in the regular classroom. In G. Stoner, M. R Shinn, & H. M. Walker (Eds.), Interventions for achievement and behavior problems (pp. 215-239). Silver Spring, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

Schmidt, M., Weinstein, T., Niemiec, R., & Walberg, H. (1985–1986). Computer-based instruction and exceptional children: A meta-analysis of research findings. Journal of Special Education, 19, 493-502.

Schoonen, R., van Gelderen, A., de Glopper, K., Hulstijn, J., Simis, A., Snellings, P., & Stevenson, M. (2003). First language and second language writing: The role of linguistic knowledge, speed of processing, and metacognitive knowledge. Language Learning, 53(1), 165-202. doi: 10.1111/1467-9922.00213

Seo, Y. J., & Bryant, D. P. (2009). Analysis of studies of the effects of computer-assisted instruction on the mathematics performance of students with learning disabilities. Computers & Education, 53(3), 913-928. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2009.05.002

*Shaw, R., & Lewis, V. (2005). The impact of computer-mediated and traditional academic task presentation on the performance and behavior of children with ADHD. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 5(2), 47-54. doi: 10.1111/J.1471-3802.2005.00041.x

Skinner, B. F. (1958). Teaching machines. Science, 128, 969-977.

Skinner, C. H., Belfiore, P. J., Mace, H. W., Williams-Wilson, S., & Johns, G. A. (1997) Altering response topography to increase response efficiency and learning rates. School Psychology Quarterly, 12(1), 54-64. doi: 10.1037/h0088947

*Slate, S.F., Meyer, T.L., Burns, W.J., & Montgomery, D. D. (1998). Computerized cognitive training for severely emotionally disturbed children with ADHD. Behavior Modification, 22(3), 415-437. doi: 10.1177/01454455980223012

Slavin, R.E., & Lake, C. (2008). Effective program in elementary mathematics: A best-evidence synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 78(3), 427-515. doi: 10.3102/0034654308317473

*Smith, C.R., Marchand – Martella, N.E., & Martella, R.C. (2011). Assessing the effects of the “Rocket Math” program with a primary elementary school student at risk for school failure: A case study. Education and Treatment of Children, 34(2), 247-258. doi: 10.1353/etc.2011.0011

Soe, K., Koki, S., & Chang, J. M. (2000). Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Reading Achievement: A Meta-Analysis. (ERIC ED 443079). Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED443079.pdf

*Solomonidou, C., Garagouni-Areou, F., & Zafiropoulou, M. (2004). Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms: Do the Software and the Instruction Method Affect Their Behavior? Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 13(2), 109-128.

Sousa, D.A., & Tomlinson, C.A. (2011). Differentiation and the brain, Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

Stetter, M. E., & Hughes, M. T. (2010). Computer-assisted instruction to enhance the reading comprehension of struggling readers: A review of the literature. Journal of Special Education Technology, 25(4), 1-16. doi: 10.1177/016264341002500401

*Tattrie, L. (2003). Teaching mathematics to children with attentional difficulties. Computer-assisted instruction versus small group instruction. (Master’s thesis). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database (UMI No 305234402).

Touroutoglou, A., & Efklides, A. (2010). Cognitive interruption as an object of metacognitive monitoring: Feeling of difficulty and surprise. In A. Efklides & P. Mihailidi (Eds.), Trends and prospects in metacognition research (pp. 171-208). New York, NJ: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-6546-2

Walcott, C.M., Marett, K. & Hessel, A. (2014). Effectiveness of a Computer-Assisted Intervention for young children with attention and reading problems. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 30(2), 83-106. doi: 10.1080/15377903.2013.87438

Xu, C., Reid, R., & Steckelberg, A. (2002). Technology applications for children with ADHD: Assessing the empirical support. Education and Treatment of Children, 25, 224-248. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/42900528

Zentall, S. S. (2006). ADHD and education: Foundations, characteristics, methods, and collaboration. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Ziegler, D. A., Mishra, J., & Gazzaley, A. (2015). The acute and chronic impact of technology on our brain. In L.D. Rosen, N.A. Cheever & L.M. Carrier (Eds.), The Wiley handbook of psychology, technology, and society (pp. 3-19). Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.




 

 

 

 

Copyright © 2015. European Journal of Special Education Research (ISSN 2501 - 2428) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).