Maria Sakellariou, Panagiota Strati, Rodokleia Anagnostopoulou


The current study investigates the co-education of typically and non-typically developed children within the Greek schools, while it presents the conclusions concerning our research which has been conducted with the implementation of an annual intervention educational curriculum about the co-inclusion of disordered children within the autism spectrum into the general class in two kindergartens and one preschool centre. It investigates effective ways of supporting the growth and learning of children with non-typical development through interventions, study courses, educational practices and multi-leveled support systems. Our specimen consisted oftwelve (12) pupils falling underthe autism spectrum who had been attending general classes, from whom seven (7) were the actual participants whereas five (5) pupils worked as the control group. The toddlers were 5 to 6 years of age and they were to be enrolled in the Elementary School the following year. The research showed that the interventions ameliorate the quality along with the quantity of basic skills and that all children can, in fact, participate on equal terms in the School Curriculum, however the readiness of the school units to accept them in an equal rank, providing them with suitable curricula, is essential.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



co-education, intervention curricula, development disorders, educational quality

Full Text:



Alevriadou, A., Vrynioti, K., Kyridis, A., Sivropoulou-Theodosiadou E., & Chrysafidis, K. (2008). Guidebook of all-day kindergarten, Ministry of National Education and Religious Affairs, Implementation Authority of Educational Actions, CSF, Athens: Pataki.

American Speech-¬Language-¬Hearing Association. (2008). Roles and responsibilities of speech-¬language pathologists in early intervention: Technical.

Anagnostopoulou, R. (2017). Transition of children from the family environment to the Nursery School and the Kindergarten; the role of the educator on the transitional process.Doctoral Thesis, University of Ioannina.

Avramidis, Ε., & Νorwich, B. (2002). Teachers' attitudes towards integration/inclusion: a review of the literature. European journal of special needs education, 17(2), 129-147.

BaiIey, D. B., Bruer, J. T, Symons, F. J., & Lίchtman, J. W. (Eds.) (2001). Critical thinking about critical periods. Baltimore: PauI Η. Brookes.

Bailey, D. B., Hebbeler, K., Spiker, D., Scarborough, A., Mallik, S., & Nelson, L. (2005).Thirty-¬six-¬ month outcomes for families of children who have disabilities and participated in early intervention. Pediatrics, 116, 1346-¬1352.

Vallianti, S., & Ioannidou-Koutselini, M. (2008). Implementation of the Differentiation of Teaching in mixed ability classrooms, Pancyprian Conference of The Cyprus Pedagogical Association (CPA/ΠΕΚ).

Benn, Ρ. Α, Egan J. F., Fang, Μ., & Smith-Bindman, R. (2004). Changes in the utilization of prenatal diagnosis. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 1255-1260.

Branson, D., &Demchak, M. (2009). The use of augmentative and alternative communication methods with infants and toddlers with disabilities: A research review. Augmentative & Alternative Communication, 25, 274-¬286.

Burchinal, M., Vandergrift, N., Pianta, R., & Mashburn, A. (2010).Threshold analysis of association between child care quality and child outcomes for low-income children in pre-kindergarten programs.Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25(2), 166-176.

Carpenter, Β. (2007). The impetus for family-centred early childhood intervention. Care Health and Development, 33(6), 664-669.

Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2010). The foundations of lifelong health are built in early childhood.¬of-¬lifelong-¬health/

Data Accountability Center. (2010). Part C child count: 2009.

Gendreau, P. L., & Archer, J. (2005).Subtypes of aggression and humans and animals.In R. E. Tremblay, W. W. Hartup & J. Archer (Eds.), Developmental origins of aggression. New York: Guilford press.

Gustafsson, H. C., Barnett, M. A., Towe-Goodman, N. R., Mills-Koonce, W. R., & Cox, M. J. (2014). Family Violence and Children's Behavior Problems: Independent Contributions of Intimate Partner and Child-Directed Physical Aggression. Journal of Family Violence.

Hattie, J. (2009) Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement, Routledge: London

Hebbeler, K. (2009). First five years fund briefing. Presentation given at a Congressional briefing on June 11, 2009, to discuss Education that works: The impact of early childhood intervention on reducing the need for special education services. .

Hebbeler, K., & Spiker, D. ( 2016). Supporting youg children with disabilities. Academic journal article.The future of children, 26, 2.

Hebbeler, K., Spiker, D., Bailey, D., Scarborough, A., Mallik, S., Simeonsson, R., & Singer, M. (2007). Early intervention for infants & toddlers with disabilities and their families: participants, services, and outcomes. Final report of the National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study (NEILS).

Hopkins, D. (1993). A teacher’s guide to classroom research (2nd ed.) Buckingham- Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of2004, 20 U.S.C. § 1400 et seq. (2004).

Joint Committee on Infant Hearing. (2007). Year 2007 position statement: Principles and guidelines for early hearing detection and intervention programs. Pediatrics, 120(4), 898-¬921.

Kaiser, P. A & Trent, J. A. (2007). Communication Intervention for Young Children with Disabilities: Naturalistic Approaches to Promoting Development in Handbook of Developmental Disabilities. New York: Guilford Press.

King, G., Keohane, R. O., & Verba, S. (1994). Designing social inquiry: Scientific inference inqualitative research. Princeton, NJ: PrincetonUniversityPress.

Kourkoutas, I. (2006). From the linear single-factorial to the holistic, dynamic and ecosystemic approaches of child psychopathology: critical comments on the analytical models and intervention in children with behavioural problems. In M. Pourkos (Ed.), Socio-cultural components in psychology and education (pp. 526-572). Athens: Atrapos.

Kourkoutas, E. (2009). Behavioral problems of children.Interventions within family and school. Athens: Ellinika Grammata.

Koutselini, M. & Agathangelou, S. (2009) Human rights and teaching: equity as praxis in mixed ability classrooms. In P. Cunningham (Ed.), Proceedings of the eleventh Conference of the Children’s Identity and Citizenship in Europe (CICE) Thematic Network: Human Rights and Citizenship Education, 237-244, (CD-ROM). London: CiCe Publication.

Lamberson, A. H. (2006). How does in-service training affect teacher perception of including children with autism into the general education setting?

Landa, R. J., Holman, K. C., O’Neill, A. H., & Stuart, E. A. (2010). Intervention targeting development of socially synchronous engagement in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(1),13 -¬21.

Lohrmann, S. & Bambara, L. M. (2006). Elementary education teachers beliefs about supports needed to successfully include students with developmental disabilities who engage in challenging behaviors. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 31(2).157-173.

McCormick, M. P., Turbeville, A. R., Barnes, S. P., & McClowry, S. G. (2014). Challenging Temperament, Teacher-Child Relationships, and Behavior Problems in Urban Low-Income Children: A Longitudinal Examination. Early Education and Development.

Meisels, S. J, & Shonkoff, J. Ρ. (2000). Early childhood intervention: a continuing evolution. Ιn S. J. Meisels& J. Ρ. Shonkoff (Eds.), Handbook of early intervention (3rd edn) (pp. 3-31). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Messemer, M. T. (2010). General education teacher perceptions regarding inclusion of students with autism spectrum disorder.

Neophytou, L., & Valianti, S. (2015). Differentiation of teaching.A people-centered and people-shaping proposal.Examining the dimensions of animate and inanimate rates on the teaching- learning process (under publication).

Nes, R. B., Hauge, L. J., Kornstad, T., Landolt, M. A., Irgens, L., Eskedal, L., Vollrath, M. E.(2015).Maternal Work Absence: A Longitudinal Study of Language Impairment and Behavior Problems in Preschool Children. Journal of Marriage and Family.

Neuman, W. L. (2000). Social research methods, qualitative and quantitative approaches (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Nisiotou, I., Vlachou, A., &Fyssa, A. (2010).Timely intervention for children with special needs or under risk factors.At A. N. Kornilaki, M. A. Cypriotaki, & G. Manolitsis (custody of). Early Intervention: Interdisciplinary Account (p 19-44). Athens: Paideia.

Law No 2817/2000 Greek Government Gazette (FEK) A 78/14.03.2000“Education of individuals with special needs and other provisions”.

Law No 3699/2008 FEK A 199/2.10.2008 “Specialized education of individuals with disabilities or with special educational needs”.

Papatheodorou, T. (2005). Behaviour Problems in the Early Years: A guide for understanding and support. London and New York: Routledge Falmer.

Park, M., & Chitiyo, M. (2011). An examination of teacher attitudes towards children with autism.Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 11(1), 70-78.

Plotts, C.A., (2012). Assessment of students with emotional and behaviorial disorders. Behavioral disorders: Identification, assessment, and instruction of students with EBD Advances in Special Education, 22, 51–85.

Poulou, M. (2015) Social and emotional skills of the teachers, relationship between teachers- pupils and learning behaviour: Aspects of the teachers, Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 12, 129-155.

Rentzou, K., & Sakellariou, M. (2014).The space as a pedagogical field in preschool learning environments.Design & Organization. Athens: Pedio.

Sakellariou, M. (2012).Introduction to the Didactics of the Educational Work in the Kindergarten.Theoretical approach and Teaching Applications. Thessaloniki: Yahoudis Publications.

Scruggs, T. E. & Mastropieri, M. A. (1996). Teacher perceptions of mainstreaming/inclusion, 1958-1995: A research synthesis. Exceptional Children, 63(1), 59-74.

Sherbin, L. A., & Krap, J. (2004). The intergenerational transfer of psychosocial risk: Mediators of vulnerability and resilience. Annual Review of Psychology.

Shore, R. (1997).Rethinking the brain: new insights into early development. New York: Families and Work Institute.

Snyder, A. P., Rakap, S., L. M & McLean, E. M. (2015). Naturalistic Instructional Approaches in Early Learning: A Systematic Review. Journal of Early Intervention, 37, 69–97.

Strati, P. (2017).Inclusion of typically and non- typically developed children inside the general class and their transition from the Kindergarten to the Elementary School.Doctoral Thesis, University of Ioannina.

Tomlinson, C. A. (2003) Differentiating Instruction in Response to Student Readiness, Interest, and Learning Profile in Academically Diverse Classrooms: A Review of Literature. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 27 (2/3), 119-45.

Tremblay, R. E. (2003). Why socialization fails: The case of chronic physical aggression. In B. B. Lahey, T. E. Moffit & A. Caspi (Eds.), Causes of conduct disorders and juvenile delinquency (pp. 182-226). New York: Guilford Press.

Vaughn, S., Kim, A., Sloan, M. C. & Sridhar, D. (2003). Social Skills Interventions for Young Children with Disabilities: A Synthesis of Group Design Studies. Remedial and Special Education, 24, 2–15.

Yin, R. K. (2003), Case Study Research-Design and Methods: Applied Social Research Methods, Vol. 5, (3rd edition), Thousand Oaks, California, Sage Publications.

Yoleri, S. (2013). The predictive effects of the behaviour problem variables on peer victimisation in preschool children. Early Child Development and Care.

Copyright © 2015. European Journal of Special Education Research (ISSN 2501 - 2428) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).