Dimitra Katsarou


There has been a lot of research about teachers’ perceptions in special education (special educators) towards ICT use in mainstream schools demonstrating positive and negative standpoints. This survey the aims to find out special educators’ views on ICT integration in mainstream schools in Thessaloniki. Objectives of the research are searching which types of ICT tools are used, what are the obstacles to ICT integration, and which are the benefits for students and special educators by the use of ICT. As the main aim of the present research is to explore the deep beliefs of special educators, qualitative method was used. The methodological tool used was the semi-structured interview which revealed a variety of aspects around ICT use. The sample consisted of fifteen participants all working at public mainstream schools in the area of Thessaloniki. Thematic analysis was used to analyze data and four themes related to study’s objectives occurred: Advantages of ICT, Barriers that hinder ICT integration, Types and access to ICT tools and Obligation to use ICT. According to the findings of the research, the majority of the sample is positive towards utilizing technologies. Despite a range of ICT benefits described by the interviewees, significant obstacles hinder ICT integration. ICT could only be integrated efficiently if curriculum changes occurred.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



special education, ICT, perceptions, students with SEN

Full Text:



Abed, M. (2018). Teachers’ perspectives surrounding ICT use amongst SEN students in the mainstream educational setting. World Journal of Education, 8(1), 6-16.

Alazam, A., Bakar, A., Hamzah, R. & Asmiran, S. (2012). Teachers’ ICT skills and ICT integration in the classroom: The case of vocational and technical teachers in Malaysia. Creative Education, 3(8), 70-76.

Alshenqeeti, H. (2014). Interviewing as a data collection method: A critical review. Sciedu Press, 3(1), 39-45.

Atabekova, A. (2017). ICT based visualization for language and culture mediation skills training: Addressing societal needs. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 237, 209-215.

Anagnostou, N. (2015). How do Greek teachers use computer technology in the education for students with reading and writing difficulties in primary schools: A qualitative research of teachers in Greece. Unpublished MA thesis. University of Oslo.

Barakos, K. (2008). Perceptions and attitudes of primary special educators about the role of ICT in special education. Unpublished BA thesis. University of Thessaly.

Baser-Gülsoy, V. G. (2011). Elementary teachers’ perceptions towards ICT integration in teaching and learning process: An explanatory mixed method. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of Ancara.

Becker, H. (2000). Finding from the teaching, learning and computing survey: Is Larry Cuban, right? Educational Policy Analysis Archives, 8(51). 5-17.

Becta (2004). What the research says about using ICT in Geography. Coventry: Becta.

Bougias, I. & Dimitriadis, S. (2006). Educational innovation at school with ICT. In D. Psillos & V. Dagdilelis (Eds.) 5th Greek Conference of Union of ICT Science and Communication in Education. Thessaloniki: University of Macedonia, 836-844.

Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77-101.

Bryman, A. (2001). Social research methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Campigotto, R., McEwen, R. & Demmans, E. (2913). Especially social: Exploring the use of an iOS application in special needs classrooms. Computers and Education, 60(1), 74-86.

Capacho, J. (2016). Teaching and learning methodologies supported by ICT applied in computer science. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 17(2), 56-61.

Chicua, S., Ticaua, A. & Soitua, L. (2014). Training for new technologies Handwriting with new technologies. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 142, 781- 785.

Ciccarelli, M., Straker, L., Mathiassen, S. & Pollock, C. (2011). ITKids Part I: Children’s occupations and use of information and communication technologies. Work, 38, 401-402.

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. London: Sage.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative and mixed method approaches. London: Sage.

Cuban, L. (2002). Computers in schools a waste. The Atlanta Journal, 12(11), 23.

Cunska, A. & Savicka, I. (2002). Use of ICT teaching learning methods make school math blossom. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 69, 1481- 1488.

Davidson, N. (2011). Now you see it: How brain science of attention will transform the way we live, work and learn. New York: Viking.

Drigas, A. & Ioannidou, R. (2013). ICT in special education: A review. International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 8(2), 167-169.

Etikan, I., Musa, S. & Alkassim, R. (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 5(1), 1-4.

Fenty, S. & McKendry, M. (2014). Examining educators’ knowledge, beliefs and practices about using technology with young children. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 35(2), 114-134.

Fisher, B., Lucas, T. & Galstyan, A. (2013). The role of ipads in constructing learning spaces. Tech Know Learn, 18,165-178.

Forzani, E. & Leu, D. J. (2012). New literacies for new learners: The need for digital technologies in primary classrooms. The Educational Forum, 76(4), 421-424.

Garcia- Velcarcel, A., Basilotta, V. & Lopez, C. (2014). ICT in collaborative learning in the classrooms of primary and secondary education. Media Education Research Journal, 21(42), 65-74.

Garrison, R. & Vaughan, D. (2008). Blended learning in higher education: Framework, principals and guidelines. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Ghavifekr, S., Kunjappan, T., Ramasamy, L. & Anthony, A. (2016). Teaching and learning with ICT tools: Issues and challenges from teachers’ perceptions. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 4(2), 659-663.

Giordano, V. (2017). A professional development model to promote internet integration into P-12 teachers’ practice: A mixed method practice. Computers in the School, 24(3), 111-123.

Gomes, C. (2005). Integration of ICT in science teaching: A study performed in Azores, Portugal. In M. Vilas, G. Pereira, M. Gonzales & A. Gonzales (eds.), Recent research developments in learning technologies (pp. 165- 168). Badajoz: Formatex Research Center.

Goundar, S. (2014). The distraction of technology in the classroom. Journal of Education and Human Development, 3(1), 211- 229.

Habibu, T., Mamun, A. & Clement, C. (2012). Difficulties faced by teachers in using ICT in teaching- learning at technical and higher educational institutions of Uganda. International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 1(7), 1-9.

Hennessy, S., Ruthven, K. & Brindley, S. (2015). Teachers’ perspectives on integrating ICT into subject teaching: commitments, constrains, cautions and change. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 37(2), 155-192.

Hermans, R., Tondeur, J., van Braak & Valcke, M. (2008). The impact of primary school teachers’ educational beliefs in the classroom use of computers. Computers and Education, 51, 1499- 1509.

Hernadez- Ramos, P. (2005). If not here, where? Understanding teachers use of technology in Silicon Valley schools. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(1), 39-64.

Jakubowski, M. (2014). Computers at schools: It’s not enough to have them and it’s not enough to use them. ISB Policy Paper.

Jamieson- Proctor, R., Burnett, P., Finger, G. & Watson, G. (2006). ICT integration and teachers’ confidence in using ICT for teaching and learning in Queensland State Schools. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 22(4), 467-469.

Javadi, M. & Zarea, M. (2016). Understanding thematic analysis and its pitfalls. Journal of Client Care, 1(1), 33-39.

Jedeskog, G. & Nissen, J. (2004). ICT in the classroom: Is doing more important than knowing? Education and Information Technologies, 9(1), 37-45.

Jimoyiannis, A. & Komis, V. (2006). Exploring secondary education teachers’ attitudes and beliefs towards ICT adoption in education. Themes in Education, 7(2), 181- 204.

Jonassen, H. (2000). Computers at mindtools for schools: Engaging critical thinking. Colombus: Merrill.

Karaca, F. (2011). Factors associated with technology integration to elementary school settings: a path model. Unpublished PhD thesis. Ankara: Middle East Technical University.

Katsarou, D. (2018). Teachers’ views on inclusive education of children with dyslexia regarding Greek language: A pilot study. European Journal of Education Studies, 5(1), 122-128.

Khine, S. & Fisher, D. (2003). Technology rich learning environment: A future perspective. Singapore: World Scientific.

King, N. (2004). Using templates in the thematic analysis of text. In C. Cassell & G. Symon (Eds), Essential guide to qualitative methods in organizational research (pp. 257- 270). London: Sage.

Lai, K. (2002). E-learning: teaching and professional development with the internet. Dunedin: University of the Otago Press.

Langford, S., Narayan, A. & von Glahn, N. (2016). Revisiting the technology and student learning debates: Critical issues and multiple perspectives. Transformative Dialogues: Teaching and Learning Journal, 9(2), 1-15.

Lenhart, A., Madden, M. & Hitlin, P. (2005). Youth are leading the transition to a fully wired and mobile nation. Pew Internet and American Life Protect.

Lindstrom. H. & Hemmingsson, H. (2014). Benefits of the use of ICT in school activities by students with motor, speech, visual and hearing impairment: A literature review. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 21(4), 251-266.

Lorelli, N., Norris, J., White, D. & Moules, N. (2017). Thematic analysis. Striving to meet the trustworthiness criteria. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 16(1).

Mahbubur, R. (2017). Information communication technology to support and include blind students in a school for all. An empirical study of teachers’ and students’ experiences with inclusion and ICT support to blind students. Unpublished MA thesis. Oslo: University of Oslo.

Maida, A. (2015). Special education teachers’ perceptions and practices of technology integration for supporting students with multiple exceptionalities. Unpublished MA thesis. Ontario: University of Ontario.

Marczak, M. (2014). Communication and information technology in intercultural language teaching. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Maxwell, J.A. (2005). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

McCarrick, K. & Xiaoming, L. (2007). Buried treasure: The impact of computer use on young childrens’ social, cognitive, language development and motivation. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 15(1), 73-95.

McGarr, O. & Kearney, G. (2009). The role of the teaching principle in promoting ICT use in small primary schools in Ireland. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 18(1), 87-102.

Moraru, S., Stoica, I. & Popescu, F. (2011). Educational software applied in teaching and assessing physics in high schools. Romanian Reports in Physics, 63(2), 577- 586.

Morley, G. (2011). Primary teachers and ICT: Is gender, age or experience important? Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, 9(7), 5-9.

Mueller, J., Wood, E., Willoughby, T., Ross, C. & Specht, J. (2008). Identifying discriminating variables between teachers who fully integrate computers and teachers with limited integration. Computers and Education, 51(4), 1523-1537.

Muijs, D. (2010). Doing quantitative research in education with SPSS. London: Sage.

Nam, S., Bahn, S. & Lee, R. (2013). Acceptance of assistive technologies by special education teachers: A structural equation model approach. International Journal of Human Computer Interaction, 29(5), 365- 377.

Ojala, M. (2009). ICT tools used by teachers in Finland as part of their work. In The 2AgePro Consortium (Ed.), Common ICT tools used in teachers’ daily work: Current state description. Oulu: University of Oulu, Learning and Research Services.

Omede, A. (2014). Information and communications technologies in special needs education: Challenges and Prospects. European Journal of Business and Management, 6(39), 204-209.

Opdenakker, R. (2006). Advantages and disadvantages of four interview techniques in qualitative research. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 7(4).

Ornellas, A., Sanchez- Valero, J., Alonso, K. & Molto, O. (2009). Two decades of ICT policy in Education, changing discourses, changing practices? In A. Mendez, A. Solano, M. Mesa & J. Mesa (Eds.), Research, reflections and innovations in integrating ICT in education (pp. 154-158). Bodajoz: Formatex.

Palinkas, L., Green, C., Wisdom, J. & Hoagwood, K. (2013). Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and in Mental Health Services Research, 42(5), 174-176.

Porter, M. (2014). Never too young for school. Women in Higher Education, 23(10), 427-429.

Prensky, M. (2006). Don’t bother me mom, I’ m learning! How computer and videogames are preparing your kids for twenty-first century success and how you can help. St Paul, MN: Paragon House.

Raman, K. & Yamat, H. (2014). Barriers teachers face in integrating ICT during English lessons: A case study. The Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 2(3), 746-747.

Roussos, P., Tsaousis, J. & Politis, P. (2000). Educational evaluation of the ODYSSEAS project in Greece. In G. Bagakis (Ed.), Evaluation of educational programs. Athens: Metaixmio.

Sicilia, C. (20O5). The challenges and benefits to teachers’ practices in constructivist learning environments supported by technology. Unpublished MA Thesis. Montreal: McGill University.

Stravodimou, D. (2015). ICT in educating people with learning difficulties. Sparti: TEI of Peloponissos.

Sulaimani, A. (2010). The importance of teachers in integrating ICT into science teaching in intermediate schools in Saudi Arabia: A mixed method study. Unpublished PhD thesis. RMIT University.

Teijlinger, R. & Hundley, V. (2001). The important of pilot studies. Social Research Update, 35, 85-91.

Tondeur, J., van Braak, J. & Valcke, M. (2007). Towards a typology of computer use in primary education. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 23(3), 197-206.

Turner, W. (2010). Qualitative interview design: A practical guide for novice investigators. The Qualitative Report, 15(3), 762-765.

Tziafetas, K., Avgerinos, A. & Karakiza, T. (2013). Views of ICT teachers about the introduction of ICT in primary education in Greece. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 12(1), 200-109.

Unal, S. & Ozturk, H. (2012). Barriers to ICT integration into teachers’ classroom practices: Lessons from a case study on social studies teachers in Turkey. World Applied Sciences Journal, 18(7), 939-944.

UNESCO (2006). ICT in education for people with special needs.

UNESCO (2012). ICT in primary education analytical survey.

Usluel, Y., Mumcu, F. & Demiraslan, Y. (2017). ICT in teaching- learning process: Teachers’ views on the integration of ICT and on the perceived obstacles to this integration. Hachette University Journal of Education, 32, 164- 179.

Vourletsis, I. & Politis, P. (2016). Differences in attitudes towards ICT in education between freshmen and senior students of Department of Primary Education in Greece. In P. Athanasiades & N. Zaranis (Eds.), Research on e-learning and ICT in education technological, pedagogical and instructional perspectives (pp. 220-226). Switzerland: Springer.

Wajszcyk, R. (2014). A study of the impact of technology in early education. Unpublished MA thesis. University of Uppsala: Uppsala.

Webb, M. (2015). Affordances of ICT in science learning; Implications for an integrated pedagogy. International Journal of Science Education, 27(6), 705-735.

Williams, P. (2005). Using information and communication technology with special educational needs students: The use of frontline professionals. Aslib Proceedings, 57(6), 330-345.

Wong, L. & Li, C. (2008). Framing ICT implementation in a context of educational change: A multilevel analysis. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 19(1), 99-120.

Wood, E., Mueller, J., Willoughby, T., Specht, J. & Deyoung, T. (2005). Teachers’ perceptions: Barriers and supports to using technology in the classroom. Education, Communication and Information, 5(2), 183-206.

Wood, E., Specht, J., Willoughby, T. & Mueller, J. (2008). Integrating computer technology in early childhood education environments: Issues raised by early childhood educators. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 54(2), 210-226.

Wyse, S. (2011). What’s the difference between qualitative and quantitative research? Snap Surveys.

Yamamoto, K. (2008). Banning laptops in the classroom: Is it worth the hassle? Journal of Legal Education, 57(4), 1- 46.


Copyright © 2015. European Journal of Special Education Research (ISSN 2501 - 2428) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).