Jacek J. Błeszyński, Małgorzata Orłowska


The problem of mental retardation / intellectual disability is constantly evolving. The main element pointing to the essence of functioning of people with intellectual disabilities is a person's position in the society (Błeszyński, 2013, pp. 11-25; J. L. Aber …, 1997, p. 463). “The number of children with select developmental disabilities (autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other developmental delays) has increased, requiring more health and education services. Additional study of the influence of risk-factor shifts, changes in acceptance, and benefits of early services is needed” (C. A.Boyle, …, 2011, p. 1034). As indicated by D. D. Smitrz, the twenty-first century brought a paradigm shift from the traditionally negative conception (as a lack or limitation), to a more positive conception, in the spirit of R. Luckasson. The new approach highlighted the importance of the search for the capacity of each person and the environment in which this person lives, learns and works. The place of a person in society has become more important than their intelligence. The concepts of adaptive behaviour and supporting systems are becoming a more important element than the averaged results of particular functions - identified by IQ. Currently, the most common approach in the field of intellectual disability introduced from 2013 is found in the DSM 5 Classification (Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). In this classification of intellectual disability (impaired intellectual development - the diagnostic term ‘intellectual disability’ is a term equivalent to the ICD-11 diagnosis of disorders of intellectual development. Although this guide uses the term intellectual disability, these two terms are used in the title, to explain the relationships with other classification systems. Moreover, the United States federal statute - Public Law 111-256, Rosa's Law - replaces the term mental retardation with the concept of intellectual disability. Scientific journals also use the term intellectual disability. This concept is widely used in medical and educational environments, as well as by groups of attorneys).  There are three important basic criteria of disorders: 1) intellectual, 2) adaptive (highlighted in our work), 3) intellectual and adaptive in adolescence. 


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intellectual disability, rehabilitation, socialization


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