Konstantina Katsora, Stylianos Kaprinis, Athanasios Strigas


The present study explores the correlation between the special educator’s emotional literacy/ emotional intelligence and their self-efficacy regarding the empowerment and social inclusion of students with disability. The study examines a main sample of 114 special educators working in the Greek education system. The main research hypothesis is centered around the interrelationship between the two key notions while incorporating copious variables such as age, gender, education and teaching experience to thoroughly examine all aspects. The academic tools utilized within this research include the Schutte (1999) Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test and the Teaching Students with Disabilities Efficacy Scale-TSDES (Dawson and Scott, 2013). The SPSS statistical package has been used to process the data regarding the descriptive and inductive statistical procedures that have been applied. In the end, it appears that emotional intelligence and the sense of self-efficacy of the special education teachers are inextricably linked as the increase in Emotional Intelligence also implies an increase in Self-Efficacy. In addition, with regard to the relations among the variables, it is noted that education is directly related to the level of Emotional Intelligence as PhD holders performed higher than holders of a Master's or Bachelor’s degree. With regard to the participants’ years of Experience, participants with 6-10 years of service had statistically significant superiority over other groups in terms of Emotional Intelligence. Overall, no statistically significant differences between the genders were found with the exception of the Professionalism and Instruction indicators in Self-Efficacy.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


educators’ emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, special education

Full Text:



Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. W H Freeman/Times Books/ Henry Holt & Co.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review, 84 (2), 191.

Bar-On, R. (1997). The Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): A test of emotional intelligence. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems, Inc.

Bar-On, R. (2000). Emotional and social intelligence: Insights from the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). In R. Bar-On and J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of emotional intelligence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bar-On, R. (2006). The Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social Intelligence. Psicothema. 18 Suppl. 13-25.

Bar-On, R., Maree, J. G., & Elias, M. J. (Eds.). (2007). Educating people to be emotionally intelligent. Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.

Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., Shiffman, S., Lerner, N., & Salovey, P. (2006). Relating emotional abilities to social functioning: A comparison of self-report and performance measures of Emotional Intelligence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(4), 780–795.

Berkman L. F., Glass T., Brissette I., Seeman T. E. (2000). From social integration to health: Durkheim in the new millennium. Social Science and Medicine. 2000 Sep; 51 (6):843-57. doi: 10.1016/s0277-9536(00)00065-4.

Brotheridge, C. M., & Grandey, A. A. (2002). Emotional labor and burnout: Comparing two perspectives of “people work”. Journal of vocational behavior, 60 (1), 17-39.

Chan, D. W. (2004). Perceived emotional intelligence and self-efficacy among Chinese secondary school teachers in Hong Kong. Personality and Individual Differences 36(8), 1781-1795.

Chan, D. W. (2008). Dimensions of Teacher Self-efficacy among Chinese Secondary School Teachers in Hong Kong. Educational Psychology, 28(2), 181-194

Corcoran, R. P., & Tormey, R. (2013). Does emotional intelligence predict student teachers' performance? Teaching and Teacher Education, 35, 34–42.

Dawson Η. & Scott L. R. (2013). Teaching Students with Disabilities Efficacy Scale: Development and Validation, Inclusion, Vol. 1, No. 3, 181–196

Diamantopoulou, Γ., Gouridou, Ε., & Platsidou, Μ. (2015). Emotional Intelligence Skills of the “Good Teacher”: Comparing the Evaluations of Teachers, Students and Parents. In Poster presented at the International Convention of Psychological Science. Amsterdam.

De Jong, T. (2005). A framework of principles and best practice for managing student behaviour in the Australian educational context. School Psychology International, 26(3); 353–370

Di Fabio, A., & Palazzeschi, L. (2008). Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy in a sample of Italian high school teachers. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 36(3), 315-326.

Eminoğlu Küçüktepe, S., Akbağ, M., & Eminoğlu Özmercan E. (2017). An Investigation Regarding the Preservice Teachers’ Emotional Literacy Levels and Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Journal of Education and Learning; Vol. 6, No. 4, doi:10.5539/jel.v6n4p267

Ghanizadeh, A., & Moafian, F. (2010). The role of EFL teachers emotional intelligence in their success. ELT Journal, 64(4), 424-435.

Gardner, H. (1987). The theory of multiple intelligences. Annals of Dyslexia, p19-35.

Gardner, H., & Hatch, T. (1989). Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences. Educational researcher, 18(8), 4-10.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York, NY: Bantam Books.

Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York, NY: Bantam

Goleman, D. (2012). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. Bantam.

Groundwater-Smith, S. (2005). Through the keyhole into the staffroom: Practitioner inquiry into School. AHIGS Conference. Shore School.

Gunter, L., Caldarella, P., Korth, B. & Young, K. R. (2012). Promoting social and emotional learning in preschool students: A study of Strong Start Pre-K. Early Childhood Education Journal, 40, 151–159.

Gürol, A., Özercan, M. G., Yalçin, H. (2010). A comparative analysis of pre-service teachers’ perceptions of self-efficacy and emotional intelligence. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 2, 3246 – 3251

Klassen, R. M., & Chiu, M. M. (2010). Effects on teachers' self-efficacy and job satisfaction: Teacher gender, years of experience, and job stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 741–756.

Koçoğlu, Z. (2011). Emotional intelligence and teacher efficacy: a study of Turkish EFL preservice teachers. Teacher Development: An international journal of teachers' professional development, 15:4, 471 – 484.

Küçüktepe, S. E., Akbag, M., & Özmercan, E. E. (2017). An Investigation Regarding the Preservice Teachers' Emotional Literacy Levels and Self-Efficacy Beliefs. Journal of Education and Learning, 6(4), 267-275.

Matthews, G., Emo, A. K., Roberts, R. D., & Zeidner, M. (2006). What Is This Thing Called Emotional Intelligence? In K. R. Murphy (Ed.), A critique of emotional intelligence: What are the problems and how can they be fixed? (pp. 3–36). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Mayer, J. D. (2002). MSCEIT: Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.

Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D., & Salovey, P. (1999). Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence. Intelligence, 27, 267–298.

Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. J. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications (pp. 3–34). Basic Books.

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2008). Emotional intelligence: New ability or eclectic traits? American Psychologist, 63(6), 503–517.

Nikoopour, J., Farsani, M. A., Tajbakhsh, M., & Sadat Kiyaie, S. H. (2012). The Relationship between Trait Emotional Intelligence and Self-efficacy among Iranian EFL Teachers. Journal of Language Teaching & Research, 3(6).

Penrose, A., Perry, C., & Bell, I. (2007). Emotional intelligence and teacher self-efficacy: The contribution of teacher status and length of experience, in Issues in Educational Research, 17(1): 107-126.

Platsidou, Μ., & Mastorodimou, Ε. (2009). Emotional and moral dimensions of students’ perceptions of the “excellent teacher”. 12th International Conference on Inclusive Education in the Balkan Countries: Policy and Practice. Ohrid.

Poulou V. (2017). An examination of the relationship among teachers' perceptions of social-emotional learning, teaching efficacy, teacher-student interactions, and students' behavioral difficulties, International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 5:2, 126-136, DOI: 10.1080/21683603.2016.1203851

Perry, C., & Ball, I. (2008). Identifying the underlying dimensions of teachers' emotional intelligence. Problems of education in the 21st Century. Peculiarities of contemporary education, 7, 89-98.

Rastegar, M., & Memarpour, S. (2009). The relationship between emotional intelligence and self-efficacy among Iranian EFL teachers. System, 37, 700 -707.

Roffey, S. (2008). Emotional literacy and the ecology of school wellbeing. Educational and Child Psychology, 25(2), 29-39.

Sabina Valente, Augusta Veiga-Branco, Hugo Rebello, Abílio Afonso Lourenco, Ana Maria Cristóvão (2020). The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence Ability and Teacher Efficacy. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(3), 916 - 923. DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2020.080324.

Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, cognition and personality, 9(3), 185-211

Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper, J. T., Golden, C. J., & Dornheim, L. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and individual differences, 25(2), 167-177

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 783–805.

Valente, Augusta Veiga-Branco, Hugo Rebelo, Abílio Afonso Lourenço, Ana Maria Cristóvão (2020). The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence Ability and Teacher Efficacy. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(3), 916 - 923. DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2020.080324

White A., Kerim M, 2001 The social and cultural impact of Short-Term Study-Abroad Strategies, 3rd edn. Chicago, IL, USA, pp 3430-3457

Yin, H. B., Lee, J. C. K., Jin, Y. L., & Zhang, Z. H. (2013). The effect of trust on teacher empowerment: the mediation of teacher efficacy. Educational Studies, 39(1), 13-28.


Copyright © 2015 - 2023. European Journal of Special Education Research (ISSN 2501 - 2428) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).