Gerasimos Koustourakis


In this paper the concepts of normative discourse and classification from Foucault’s and Bernstein’s theories respectively are made use of and the objective is to identify kindergarten teachers’ discourse on the status of classroom space and its relationship with the knowledge areas of a kindergarten curriculum that follows an academic logic. The research was conducted using the semi-structured interview with kindergarten teachers and the chief findings showed that: a) although the teachers’ discourse is determined by the normative discourse on the means of implementing the kindergarten curriculum, it is differentiated from it at some points as a result of their lived work experience; b) the teachers separate the corners of the kindergarten classroom according to their status into primary (Library, Discussion, Arts, Building material, Doll’s house, Computers) and secondary; and c) strong actual and symbolic borders are implemented in the shaping of the proposed teaching use of the classroom space since the space is linked to the teaching of specific knowledge areas of the curriculum (strong classification – visible pedagogy).


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



space, corners, classroom, kindergarten school, discourse, curriculum

Full Text:



Alahiotis, S., & Karatzia-Stavlioti, E. (2006). “Effective Curriculum policy and cross-curricularity: an analysis of the new curriculum design of the Hellenic Pedagogical Institute”. Pedagogy, Culture & Society 14(2), 119-147.

Apple, M. W. (2002). Does education have independent power? Bernstein and the question of relative autonomy. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 23(4), 607–616.

Berg, B.L. (2001). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (4thed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Bernstein, B. (1990). The Structuring of Pedagogic Dscourse: Vol. IV Class, codes & Control. London: Routledge.

Bernstein, B. (2000). Pedagogy, Symbolic control and identity. Theory, Research, Critique. (Revised edition). N.Y.: Rowman & Littlefield.

Bernstein, B. (2003). Class, Codes and Control. Volume III. Towards a Theory of Educational Transmission. London: Routledge.

Chen, H., & Wang, X. (2018). Children’s Evaluation of the Physical Environment Quality in Kindergarten: A Case Study from China. International Journal of Early Childhood, 1-18.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2008). Educational research methodology. Athens: Metaixmio.

Council of Europe (2003). Learning and teaching in the communication society. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Crosser, S. (2005). What Do We Know about Early Childhood Education? Research Based Practice. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.

Dafermou, C., Koulouri, P., & Mpasagianni, E. (2006). Kindergarten Teachers’ Guide. Athens: OEDB (in Greek).

Eldar, E., Ayvazo, S., & Hirschmann, M. (2018). Descriptive Analysis of the Instructional Control of Teachers in a Classroom of Students with Behavioral Disorders. Journal of International Special Needs Education, 21(1), 14-20.

Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and punish. New York: Pantheon.

Foucault, M. (1990). The order of discourse. Athens: Iridanos.

Foucault M. (1991). Politics and The Study of Discourse. In G. Burchell, C. Gordon & P. Miller (Eds), The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality (pp. 53-72). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Foucault, Μ. (2005). The hermeneutics of the subject: Lectures at the College de France 1981-1982. N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan.

Foucault, M. (2008). The Eye of Power. Thessaloniki: Vanias.

Foucault, M. (2010). Abnormal: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1974-1975. Athens: Estia.

Germanos, D. (2005a). Space and educational procedures. The pedagogical quality of the space. Athens: Gutenberg.

Germanos, D. (2005b). Themes of space organization to create an educational environment for Cross-thematic Curricula. In D. Germanos, E. Panagiotidou, K. Mpotsoglou & M. Mpirmpili (Eds), The Cross-thematic approach of teaching and learning in the preschool and first school age (pp. 40-51). Athens: Ellinika Grammata.

Government Paper (1989). Presidential Decree no. 486. Curriculum of preschool education. Volume A, 208, 26-9-1989: 4469-4479 (in Greek).

Government Paper (2003). Cross Thematic Curriculum Framework and Curricula of Primary School and Gymnasium. Volume B, 303, 13–3–2003: 3827–3841 (in Greek).

Hatch, Α. J. (2005). Teaching in the New Kindergarten. Clifton Park, N.Y.: Thomson Delmar Learning.

Koustourakis, G. (2007). The new educational policy for the reform of the curriculum and the change of school knowledge in the case of Greek compulsory education. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 17(1/2), 131-146.

Koustourakis, G. (2012). A Sociological Approach of the Art Curriculum in Greek Primary Education: The Subject’s Social Status in the Intented and Implemented Curriculum. The International Journal of the Arts in Society, 6(6), 31-41.

Koustourakis, G. (2013). A Sociological Approach to the Official Discourse on Space in the case of Greek Kindergarten Classrooms. The International Journal of Early Childhood Learning, 19(3), 1-13.

Koustourakis, G. (2014). A Sociological Approach to Painting Teaching according to the Contemporary Greek Kindergarten Curriculum. The International Journal of Early Childhood Learning, 20(1), 23-37.

Koustourakis, G., & Zacharos, K. (2011). Changes in School Mathematics Knowledge in Greece: a Bernsteinian Analysis. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 32(3), 369-387.

Koutselini, M. (2006). Towards a meta-modern paradigm of curriculum: Transcendence of a mistaken reliance on theory. Educational Practice and Theory, 28(1), 55-68.

Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content Analysis. An Introduction to its Methodology. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Logue, C. (2018). Amazing classroom reading corners. Retrieved from

Makrinioti, D., & Solomon, J. (1999). The Discourse of Citizenship Education in Greece: National Identity and Social Diversity. In J. Torney-Purta, J. Schwille & J.-A. Amadeo (Eds), Civic Education Across Countries: Twenty-four National Case Studies from the IEA Civic Education Project (pp. 278-304). Amsterdam: IEA.

Ministry of Education (1992). Kindergarten Activity Book. Kindergarten teacher’s book. Athens: OEDB (in Greek).

Morais, A. M., & Neves, I. P. (2011). Educational texts and contexts that work: Discussing the optimization of a model of pedagogic practice. In D. Frandji & P. Vitale (Eds), Knowledge, pedagogy & society: International perspectives on Basil Bernstein’s sociology of education (pp. 191-207). London: Routledge.

Oberhuemer, P. (2012). Balancing traditions and transitions: early childhood policy initiatives and issues in Germany. In T. Papatheodorou (Ed.), Debates on Early Childhood Policies and Practices. Global snapshots of pedagogical thinking and encounters (pp. 17-26). New York: Routledge.

Ontario Ministry of Education (2010). The Full-Day Early Learning – Kindergarten Program. Toronto, ON: Queen’s Printer for Ontario.

Pyle, A. (2013). Listening to the voices in the garden: The enactment of curriculum in contemporary kindergarten. PhD Dissertation. Kingston, Ontario: Queen’s University of Canada.

Queensland Government (2006). Early Curriculum Guidelines. Queensland: The State of Queensland (Queensland Studies Authority).

Reed, J. A. (2018). Activating the Modern Classroom. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Robson, C. (2007). Research of the real world: a means for social scientists and professional researchers. Athens: Gutenberg.

Roopnarine, J.L., Johnson, J.E., Flannery Quinn, S., & Patte, M.M. (Eds) (2018). Handbook of International Perspectives on Early Childhood Education. London: Routledge.

Sanders-Smith, S. C. (2015). Class and pedagogy: a case study of two Chicago preschools. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 25(4), 314-332.

Solomon, I. (1992). Power and order in Modern Greek school: A typology of school spaces and practices 1820-1900. Athens: Alexandria.

Solomon, I. (1994). Educational action and social regulation of the subjects" Knowledge, discipline and the field of the school. In I. Solomon, & G. Kouzelis (Eds), Discipline and knowledge (pp. 113-144). Athens: Society for the Study of Human Sciences.

Townsend-Butterworth, D. (2015). What to expect in preschool: the classroom. Retrieved from

UNESCO (2006). British Virgin Islands. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) programmes. Geneva: UNESCO International Bureau of Education.

Young, M.F.D. (1998). The Curriculum of the Future. From the “New Sociology of Education” to a Critical Theory of Learning. London: Falmer Press.

Young, F.D. M. (2007). Bringing Knowledge Back In. From social constructivism to social realism in the sociology of education. London: Routledge.

Weiss, N, & Weiss, S. (2015). Spots for M.A.T.H. Kindergarten. Teacher's Edition. New York: Spots Educational Resources.

Woolner, P. (2010). The Design of Learning Spaces. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Zacharos, K., Koustourakis, G., & Papadimitriou K. (2014). Analysing the implemented curriculum of Mathematics in Preschool Education. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 26(2), 151-167.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2015 - 2023. European Journal of Alternative Education Studies (ISSN 2501-5915) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).