THE DISCOURSE ON TURKISH IDENTITY IN HISTORICAL FILMS: THE CASE OF ‘KARA MURAT’

Eray Alaca

Abstract


The film industry that developed at the end of the 19th century played a role in improving the masses, first visually and then aurally. The nation-states that became aware of this situation, especially Germany, began to use films in creating a collective national identity. As for Turkey, it became involved in the film industry with the contributions of Enver Paşa, who was under intense German influence. However, only documentaries, feature films, and films based on the Turkish national struggle were made until the 1950s. In the 1950s, there was an evolution in the film industry, as in every other area of Turkish life. Kostüme avantür films, a genre specific to Turkey using real or fiction characters whose stories were adapted into a film from comic strips, were introduced. These films based on historical figures attracted a great deal of attention between 1970-1980 along with the effect of internal and external political developments. Among these films, the Kara Murat series was especially prominent. The present study aims to look into the discourse on Turkish identity in the Kara Murat series within the scope of collective identity. In this regard, the Kara Murat series shown between 1972-1978 were subject to a discourse analysis based on such categories as identity, conqueror and Conquest, the “other”, and “us”. As a result of the study, it was seen that the Turkish identity discourse in these films was based on Ottoman history.

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter

DOI

Keywords


film, Kara Murat, identity, collective consciousness, Kostüme Avantür

References


Abisel, N. (1999). Popüler Sinema ve Türler [Popular Movies and Genres] Alan Yayıncılık.

Anderson, B. (2015). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Metis Yayınları.

Aydos, S. (2011). “Anadolu’dan Geldik...!” [“Discourse on National Identity in the Introductory Films of the Country”] (1934-2005). Kilit Yayınları.

Baş, T., & Akturan, U. (2013). Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri [Qualitative Research Methods]. Seçkin Yayıncılık.

Başgüney, H. (2011). “SINEMATEK (Turkish Journal of Sinematek): Cinema and Political Discussions Between 1965-1980” Türk ve Dünya Sineması Üzerine Sentezler [Synthesis on Turkish and World Cinema] Editor: Serpil Kırel, p. 55-68. İstanbul: Parşömen Yayıncılık.

Baytan, N. Director. (1972). Fatihin Fedaisi Kara Murat [Fatih’s Guard Kara Murat] Scenario Fuat Özlüer, Erdoğan Tünaş. Acting. Cüneyt Arkın, Hale Soygazi, Erol Taş et al. DVD. Erler Film Türker İnanoğlu.

Baytan, N. Director. (1973). Kara Murat Fatihin Fermanı [Kara Murat: The Order of Fatih the Conqueror] Scenario. Fuat Özlüer, Erdoğan Tünaş. Acting. Cüneyt Arkın, Melda Sözen, Kenan Pars et al. DVD. Erler Film Türker İnanoğlu.

Baytan, N. Director. (1974). Kara Murat Ölüm Emri [Kara Murat: Death Order] Scenario. Fuat Özlüer, Erdoğan Tünaş. Acting. Cüneyt Arkın, Feri Cansel, Cemil Şahbaz et al. DVD. Erler Film Türker İnanoğlu.

Baytan, N. Director. (1975). Kara Murat Kara Şövalyeye Karşı [Kara Murat vs. Black Knight] Scenario. Fuat Özlüer, Erdoğan Tünaş. Acting. Cüneyt Arkın, Burçin Doğu, Turgut Özatay et al. DVD. Erler Film Türker İnanoğlu.

Baytan, N. Director. (1976). Kara Murat Şeyh Gaffara Karşı [Kara Murat Against Seyh Gaffar]. Scenario. Fuat Özlüer, Erdoğan Tünaş. Acting. Cüneyt Arkın, Daniela Giordano, Pasouale Basile et al. DVD. Erler Film Türker İnanoğlu.

Baytan, N. Director. (1977). Kara Murat Denizler Hakimi [Kara Murat: Master of the Seas] Scenario. Fuat Özlüer, Erdoğan Tünaş. Acting. Cüneyt Arkın, Peter Fabian, Sevda Karaca et al. DVD. Erler Film Türker İnanoğlu.

Baytan, N. Director. (1978). Kara Murat Devler Savaşıyor [Kara Murat: Titans Clash]. Scenario. Fuat Özlüer, Erdoğan Tünaş. Acting. Cüneyt Arkın, Canan Perver, Tanju Gürsu et al. DVD. Erler Film Türker İnanoğlu.

Bazin, A. (2013). Sinema Nedir? [What Is Cinema?]. Doruk Yayıncılık. İstanbul.

Büker, S., Topçu Y.G. (2010). Sinema: Tarih-Kuram-Eleştiri [Cinema: History-Theory-Criticism]. Kırmızı Kedi Yayın Evi.

Çomak, A. N. (1998). Türk Sinemasında Ordu –Merkezli Sinema Dairesi’nin Önemi ve Yeri Sinemanın Doğuşu ve Ülkemize Girişi [The Place and Importance of the Army-Based Movie Theater - The Rise of Cinema and Its Introduction in Turkey]. Istanbul University Journal of the Faculty of Communication. Issue 7, p. 297-304.

Günay, V. D. (2013). Söylem Çözümlemesi [Discourse Analysis]. Papatya Yayıncılık Eğitim.

Güvenç, B. (1996). Türk Kimliği Kültür Tarihinin Kaynakları [Turkish Identity: Roots of Cultural History]. Remzi Kitabevi.

Jenkins, J. (1980). Örgün Olmayan Eğitimde Film [Film for Non-Formal Education]. (Translator: Dursun Gökdağ). Anadolu University Faculty of Communication Sciences, Journal of Communication. Edition 3 p. 352-360.

Karadoğan, R. (2002). “Tarihi Çizgi Romanların Yeşilçam Serüveni: Kostüme Avantür Filmler” [Yeşilçam Journey of Historical Comic Books: Kostüme Avantür Films]. Çizgili Hayat Kılavuzu, İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları, 2002.

Karasar, N. (2015). Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemi [Scientific Research Method]. Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.

Kıraç, R. (2008). Film İcabı: Türkiye Sinemasına İdeolojik Bir Bakış [An Ideological Perspective of Turkish Cinema]. Ankara: De Ki Basım Yayım Ltd. Şti.

Kocaman, İ. (1939). Bayrak, Sancak, Milli Marş [Flag and National Anthem]. Kenan Basımevi. İstanbul.

Monaco, J. (2002). Bir Film Nasıl Okunur? Sinema, Medya ve Mültimedya Dünyası [How to Read A Cinema? - The World of Cinema, Media and Multimedia]. İstanbul: Oğlak Yayınları

Onaran, A. Ş. (1994). Türk Sineması [Turkish Cinema] (Edition I). Kitle Yayınları Ankara.

Onaran, A. Ş. (1995). Türk Sineması [Turkish Cinema] (Edition II). Kitle Yayınları Ankara.

Önder, S., & Baydemir, A. (2005). Türk Sinemasının Gelişimi [The Development of Turkish Cinema]. Eskişehir Osmangazi University Journal of Social Sciences, Edition 6, Issue 2.

Özbaran, S. (2004). Bir Osmanlı Kimliği [An Ottoman Identity]. Kitap Yayınevi.

Özbaran, S. (2003). Güdümlü Tarih [Guided History]. Cem Yayınevi.

Özön, N. (1970). İlk Türk Sinemacısı Fuat Uzkınay [Fuat Uzkınay: The First Turkish Filmmaker]. Journal of Turkish Sinematek.

Özön, N. (1995). Karagözden Sinemaya- Türk Sineması ve Sorunları [From Shadow Plays to Cinema - Turkish Cinema and Its Problems] (Edition I-II.). Kitle Yayınları. Ankara.

Pamuk, A. (2014). Kimlik ve Tarih Kimliğin İnşasında Tarihin Kullanımı [The Use of History in Building Identities and Historical Identity]. Yeni İnsan Yayınevi.

Punch, K. F. (2014). Sosyal Araştırmalara Giriş [Introduction to Social Research]. Cited by. H. Bader Arslan, Zeynep Akyüz, Dursun Bayrak. Siyasal Kitabevi.

Schlesinger, P. (1994). Medya Devlet ve Ulus. Siyasal Şiddet ve Kolektif Kimlik [Media, State and Nation: Political Violence and Collective Identities]. Translator: Mehmet Küçük. Ayrıntı Yayınları.

Scognamillo, G., & Demirhan, M. (2010). Fantastik Türk Sineması [Fantastic Turkish Cinema]. Kabalcı Yayınevi. İstanbul.

Şener, E. (1970). Kurtuluş Savaşı ve Sinemamız [War of Independence and Turkish Cinema]. Osman Yüksel and Ahmet Sarı Matbaaları. İstanbul.

Tepebaşılı, F. (2006). Ulusal Marşlar ve Kimlikler [National Anthems and Identities]. Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.

Tezcan, M. (1972). Toplumsal Yaşantımızda Sinema ve Halk Eğitimindeki Rolü [The Place of Cinema in Our Social Lives and Their Role in Public Education]. Ankara University Journal of the Faculty of Education Sciences, Edition 5, Issue 3, 171-204.

Yetişkin, E. (2010). Güncel Politik Sinemayı Yeniden Düşünmek [Re-Handling the Current Political Cinema]. Sakarya University, Journal of Academic Studies, 5 (2), 95-116.

Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2008). Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri [Qualitative Research Methods in Social Sciences]. Seçkin Yayıncılık.

Yıldırım, T. E. (2011). “Tarihi Kostüme Avantür Sinemasında Kahraman Tiplemesinin Psikolojik Analizi.” [“Psychological Analysis of Heroes in the Historical Kostüme Avantür Films”] Türk ve Dünya Sineması Üzerine Sentezler [Synthesis on the Turkish and World Cinema]. Editor Serpil Kırel, p. 69-72. İstanbul: Parşömen Yayıncılık, 2011.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Eray Alaca

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).

 
Histats.com © 2005-2018 - GDPR: tracker policy -Integrate your policy - this website policy - Check/do opt-out