Charles Manyama, Placidius Ndibalema


The study sought to assess teachers’ conception towards the use of social networks as a tool for professional development in Tanzania government secondary schools in Dodoma Municipality. Thus, the specific objectives of this study were to assess teachers’ conception on the available social networks opportunities that can support professional development, and to examine the limitations that hinder teachers’ use of social networks available for professional development. The paper is guided by the social-cognitive theory which stresses that learning takes place in a social environment. A cross-sectional  research design  was  used  to  collect  data  that  involved 84  teachers  from  ten secondary schools, six heads of schools, three quality assurers and one respondent from District education office. Qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis and quantitative data were descriptively analyzed through SPSS Version 20 of which the mean score was obtained. The survey results indicated teachers had positive conceptions towards the use of social networks as a tool for professional development. Furthermore, the findings revealed that teachers faced several challenges which include lack training on how to integrate SNs in TPD and high costs of the internet bandwidth, just to mention a few. Finally, the researchers recommend that, teachers should be exposed to professional development programmes that empower them to develop various pedagogical skills and understand a variety of learning environment that can improve their practice through collaborative online social networks. Again, teachers should be provided with opportunities to use the available SNs to create professional learning networks in their local context and globally.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



teachers’ professional development, social networks, pedagogical tool


Al-Senaidi, S., Lin, L., & Poirot, J. (2009). Barriers to adopting technology for teaching and learning in Oman. Computers & Education, 53 (3), 575- 590

Atkinson, D. (2002). Toward a socio cognitive approach to second language acquisition. The Modern Language, 86 (4), 525-545.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Barnes, J., & Kannewell, S. (2016). Investigating teachers' perception of teaching ICT in Wales: Education Information Technol. DOI 10.1007/s10639-016-9549-y.

Binde, A.L. (2010). Conception of mathematics education thoughts among teachers. Education in Tanzania. Abo Academy, University Press.

Buabeng-Andoh, C, (2012). Factors influencing teachers’ adoption and integration of information and communication technology into teaching: A review of the literature: International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 8 (1), 136-155

Catherine, M. (2016). Social media for networking and participatory professional learning: 2ndInternational Conference of Higher Education Advances HEAd’ 16Uneversitatpolitecnica de Valencia, 2016 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4995/HEAd16.2016.2867.

Corbin, J. M. & Strauss, A. L. (2008). Basic qualitative research: Techniques and procedure for developing grounded theory (3ed). Thousand oaks’ CA: sage.

Coutinho, C. P & Lisboa, E. S. (2013). Social networks as spaces for informal teacher professional development: challenges and opportunities: Int. J. Web Based Communities, 9 (2), 2013

Crallet, V., Ismail, A., & Manyilizu, M. (2015). Support of ICT use in Tanzania secondary schools: The Case of Dodoma Municipality. International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Vol. 134, (16), 12-16.

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd Ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Education research: planning, conducting, and evaluating qualitative & qualitative research (5th Ed). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

Donelan, H. (2016). Social media for professional development and networking opportunities in academia. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 40 (5), 706–729.

Edirisinghe, M. N. S. (2015). The Role of ICT in professional knowledge sharing among teachers and school leaders. Paper presented at the national conference by the national institute of education in Maharagama, Sri Lanka.

E-learning Africa, (2015). Tanzania beyond Tomorrow: Ready soon

European Commission. (2013). Survey of schools: ICT in education. Benchmarking access, use and attitudes to technology in Europe’s schools. Belgium: European Commission.

Fahim, M., & Mehrgan, K. (2012). Second language acquisition: A social cognitive perspective. Advances in Digital Multimedia (ADMM), 1 (3), 159-165.

Ghavifekr, S. & Rosdy, W.A.W. (2015). Teaching and learning with technology: Effectiveness of ICT integration in schools. International Journal of Research in Education and Science (IJRES), 1 (2), 175-191.

Gu, L. (2011). From national commitment and initiatives to implementation in the classroom: Some critical issues on integration of ICT into education in The Swedish context. The University of the Fraser Valley Research Review, 4(1), 29-40.

Gulbeher, Y. (2014). Current state of usage of social media for education: Case of Turkey Journal of Social Media Studies 2014; 1 (1): 53–69 ISSN: 2147-3366DOI: 10.15340/2147336611763. jsms.macroworldpub.com.

Hooker, M., (2016). Cultivating synergies min hencing ICT competencies: A partnership approach (Gesci) Der-Es-Salaam.

Hooker, M., Mwiyeria, E., & Verma, A. (2011). ICT Competency Framework For Teachers (ICTCFT): Contextualization and piloting in Nigeria and Tanzania (World Bank and GESCI Initiative Synthesis Report No. Draft). Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania: Ministry of education and vocational training (MoEVT), Tanzania.

Hughes, J. E., Ko, Y., Lim, M., & Liu, S. (2015). Pre-service teachers’ social networking use, concerns, and educational possibilities: Trends from 2008 to 2012. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 23 (2), 185-212.

Jonker, J. & Pennink, B. The essence of research methodology: A concise guide for master and PhD student in management science, Heidelberg: Springer.

Kafyulilo, A., Fisser, P., & Voogt, J. (2015). Factors affecting teachers’ continuation of technology use in teaching: Education Information Technol, 3(6), 1535–1554.

Kamnoetsin, T. (2014). Social media Use: A Critical analysis of Facebook's impact on collegiate EFL students' English writing in Thailand: Seton Hall University Dissertation and Thesis.

Kan, H. (2014). A model for integrating ICT into teacher training program in Bangladesh based on TPCK: University of Sydney, Australia International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT). 10 (3), 21-31.

Kihoza, P., Zlotnikova, L., Bada, J., & Kalegele, (2016). An assessment of teachers’ abilities to support blended learning: Implementation in Tanzania secondary school.

Kushnir. N., Osipova, N., Valko, N., & Litvinenko, O. (2016). The Experience of the Master Classes as a Means of Formation of Readiness of Teachers to Implement Innovation: ICTERI 2016, Kyiv, Ukraine, June 21-24, 2016

Liana, L. H., & Ngeze, L. V., (2015). Online teacher communities of practice: A proposed model to increase professional development in Tanzania. Journal of Informatics and Virtual Education, 3 (01), 22-27.

Mwalongo, A. (2011). Teachers’ perceptions about ICT for teaching, professional development, administration and personal Use; Dar es Salaam University college of education, Tanzania. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 2011, 7 (3), 36-49.

Ndibalema, P. (2014). Teachers’ attitudes towards the use of information communication technology (ICT) as a pedagogical tool in secondary schools in Tanzania: The case of Kondoa District. International Journal of Education and Research, 2 (2), 1-16.

Ndibalema, P. (2015). Transforming teachers’ professional competence in the use of (ICT) as a pedagogical tool: An experience of community, of practice learning model in secondary schools in Tanzania: Unpublished research thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy of the University of Dodoma October 2015.

Ndibalema, P. (2016). Experiences on Opportunities and Challenges of using a blog as a Tool to enhance Teachers’ Professional Development for Secondary school Teachers in Tanzania. (A paper accepted for publication in Journal of Education and Development-The University of Dodoma)

Patrick, D., Irina, Z., Joseph, K. &Khamisi, K. (2016). An assessment of teachers’ abilities to support blended learning implementation in Tanzania secondary schools: Contemporary Educational Technology, 2016 7 (1) 60-84.

Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative research & evaluation methods: Integrating theory and practice. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Serah, N. N. (2014). Challenges facing effective information and communications technology (ICT) implementation in selected public secondary schools in Nakuru North District Nakuru County; Unpublished research project report submitted to the school of business in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree in masters of business administration (Strategic Management) of Kenyatta University.

Schaik, V. (2016). Research at Grass Roots. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.

Tomczyk, L., Szotkowski, R., Fabis, A., Wasinski, A., Chudy, S., & Neumeister, P., (2015). Selected aspects of conditions on the use of new media as an important part of the training of teachers in the Czech Republic and Poland - differences, risks and threats. Educational Information Technologies. DOI 10.1007/s10639-015-9455-8

URT (2015). ICT competency standards for teachers in Tanzania: Dar es Salaam

URT (2016). National ICT policy. Dar es Salaam: Tanzania.

URT (2016). Primary and secondary statistics in brief: President office Regional Administration and Local Government.

Uyouko, A., & Wong, S. (2015). Teachers’ cultural perceptions of ICT in Nigerian schools: International Journal of Education and Training, www.injet.upm.edu.my

Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press.

Wang, S. K., Hsu, Y. H., Reeves, T. C., & Coster, D. C. (2014). Professional development to enhance teachers' practices in using information and communication technologies (ICTs) as cognitive tools: Lessons learned from a design-based research study. Journal Homepage: Computer & Education. 79 (2014) 101-115

World Bank. (2016). World Development Report 2016: Digital Dividends. Washington, DC: World Bank. doi:10.1596/978-1-4648-0671-1. License: Creative commons attribution CC BY 3.0 IGO

Zhang, C. (2013). A Study of internet use in EFL teaching and learning in Northwest China. Asian Social Science, 9 (2), 48-52.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v0i0.1307


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Charles Manyama, Placidius Ndibalema

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).