Harriet Wambui Njui


This paper reviews literature on learning environments with a view to making recommendations on how teachers could create effective and high-quality learning environments that provide learners with transformative learning experiences as they go through the process of education. An effective learning environment is critical because quality education, which is essential to real learning and human development, is influenced by factors both inside and outside the classroom. Learning institutions have a responsibility to create an effective learning environment that is capable of mitigating the factors that can impede students’ learning as they also enhance those that promote learning. The qualities of a learning environment such as leadership style, physical and psychological security, availability of learning resources, curriculum content, objectives, models of curriculum delivery, assessment and the school culture contribute significantly to student learning either positively or negatively depending on how they are shaped. This implies that teachers have an awesome responsibility of establishing structures that systematically address these qualities to ensure that learning institutions promote individualized learning that is inclusive of all learners. The paper recommends reforms in education with a view to ensuring that learning environments provide learners with opportunities that enable them to go through transformative learning experiences that nurture them with the desire for lifelong education. 


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



transformative education, individualized learning, lifelong education, learning environment

Full Text:



A Place for Learning: The Physical Environment of Classrooms (2014).

Akoto, (2009). Developing an Inclusive Classroom Culture/ Inclusive Education.

Andrew Churches (2008). Welcome to the 21st Century. EC Tech Resources-Wiki paces.

Basic Education Curriculum Framework. Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (2017).

Bunyi, G.W.(2011) Teacher Preparation and Continuing Professional Development.

Carneiro, R. and Draxler, A. 2008. Education for the 21st century: lessons and challenges. European Journal of Education, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 149-160.

21st Century Education- Center for Curriculum Redesign (2016).

Bruner, J. S. (2009). The process of education. Harvard University Press.

Chelule, F.K. (2009). Modern Facilitation and Training Methodology: Guide to Best Practice in Africa. Zapf Chancery Research Consultants and Publishers: Eldoret, Kenya.

Child Friendly Schools. UNICEF.

Children’s Learning Styles-Ability Path.

Child Friendly Schools/Life skills/UNICEF (2012).

Commission for University Education Standard Guidelines for Resources, Kenya (2014).

Discovery Learning (Bruner) - Learning Theories (2017).

Education for All. United Nations (2015).

Formative Feedback: Feedback for Learning. University of Sheffield.

Ingule, F.O., Rono, R. O. & Ndambuki, P. W. (2011). Introduction to Psychology. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers.

Jacobsen, Eggen & Kauchak (1993). Methods for teaching: A skills approach. Prentice-Hall, Inc: New Jersey.

Learning Environment/Education/United Nations. UNESCO.

Kafu, P.A.(2011). Teacher Education Issues in Kenya. International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction Vol. 1(1), pp. 43 - 52, April 2011.

Kibera, L.W. and Kimokoti, A. (2007). Fundamentals of sociology of education. With reference to Africa. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.

Mayo, P. (2003). Journal of Transformative Education, 1(1), 38-57. Retrieved from http://doi/10.1177/1541344602250400, Sage Publications

Migori, J. A. (2009). “Factors influencing research productivity among academic staff in selected public and private universities”. Unpublished Doctorate thesis. Nairobi: Catholic University of Eastern Africa.

Njoroge, R.J and Bennaars, G.A (2000). Philosophy and Education in Africa. Transafrica Press: Nairobi

Njui, H.W. (2010). “Analysis of the effectiveness of the Teaching-Learning strategies used in implementing the Secondary School Music Curriculum in Nairobi Province”. Unpublished Doctorate thesis. Nairobi: Catholic University of Eastern Africa.

Nyerere, J. K. International Bureau of Education., Kassam (2000).

Ochangi, Ayot, Kamina, Ondigi & Kimemia (2015). Improving Student Teaching for Quality Teacher Preparation: A Kenyan University Case. African Journal of Teacher Education

Okwach, A., & Okwach, O. (2005). Schooling, Education and Underdevelopment. The Paradox of Western-Oriented Education in Africa. Kenya: Own and Associate Ltd.

Otunga, R. N., Odero, I. I. & Barasa, P. L. (2011). A Handbook for Curriculum and instruction. Eldoret, Kenya: Moi University Press.

Ozturk , I.(2008).The role of Education in Economic Development. A Theoretical Perspective.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills.

P21. (2007b). 21st Century Curriculum and Instruction. Washington DC, Partnership for 21st Century Skills.

Personalizing the Learning Experiences. Providing Transformati ve Learning Opportunities as a Pathway Towards Equity (2016).

Physical Environment/Safe Supportive Learning.

Principles of Learning and Teaching (2017). › ... ›

Rodrigue, E., Allam, C., Barrett, J. & Forrest, J. (2010). The inclusive learning and teaching handbook. University of Sheffield.

Roth, W.M. (2015) Becoming and Belonging- UVic.

Scott, L. (2015). UNESCO and UNICEF 2013a.

Sifuna, D.N, Fatuma, N.C. & Oanda, I.O. (2006). Themes in the Study of the Foundations of Education. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.


Tecklemariam, A.A. (2009). Managing Education. A Handbook for student-teachers, trainers and school principles. Nairobi: CUE Press.

The Four Pillars of Learning. UNESCO (2013). Learning to live together learning to be Learning to do Learning to Know.

UNESCO (2013a). Policy Guidelines for Mobile Learning. Paris, UNESCO.

________(2012). Education and Skills for Inclusive and Sustainable Development beyond 2015: Think Piece for the United Nations Task Team on Post-2015 Development. (Accessed 30 April 2014).

______ (2009).

UNESCO and UNICEF. 2013a. Envisioning Education in the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Executive Summary. Paris


United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Wamahiu, S. (2015). Value- Based Education in Kenya: An exploration of meanings and practices. Republic of Kenya. Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. Women Educational Researchers of Kenya

What is a learning Environment/IGI Global.

Wilson, R.T. (2011). The Relationship between School and Society. Functionalist Perspective.

Woolfolk, A. (2014). Educational Psychology. Twelfth Edition. Edinburg, England: Pearson.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Harriet Wambui Njui

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2022. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).