Rose F. E. Swaka, Charles M. Rambo, Joyce A. Osogo


The study sought to investigate the influence of funding activities as a component of sanitation financing programme on community livelihood in urban informal settlements of Kisumu County, Kenya. The purpose of the study was to assess the influence of funding activities on community livelihood in urban informal settlement of Obunga, Kisumu County Kenya. The study adopted inferential analysis and descriptive survey research design with sample size of 384 households and 10 key informants. The study sample was obtained through stratified simple random, and purposive sampling strategies. Quantitative data was analysed using means, standard deviations, frequencies, and percentages. Qualitative data was transcribed and analysed in emergent themes and sub-themes. Results were interpreted and requisite recommendations made. According to the results, there is a statistically significant positive correlation between funding activities and community livelihood (p < 0.05). Coefficient of determination showed that funding activities accounted for 24.1% of the changes in community livelihood. Findings from the study established that there was statistically significant correlation between funding activities as a component of sanitation financing program and community livelihood. The study recommends the funding activity should be sustained in the sanitation financing program for purposes of improving community livelihood .The study concluded that investing in funding activities of sanitation financing programme in Obunga urban informal settlement of Kisumu County, Kenya has a positive influence on community livelihood. The study calls for further research on the influence of funding activities as a component of sanitation financing program on community livelihood using other predictors of community livelihood as well as influence of sanitation financing program on community livelihood; a comparison between formal and informal urban settlements.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



sanitation financing, funding activities, community livelihood

Full Text:



Annamraju, S., Calaguas, B., & Gutierrez, E. (2001). Financing water and sanitation. Key issues in increasing resources to the Sector, Water Aid briefing paper. 2 - 30.

Asian Development Bank. (2000). Finance for the Poor: Microfinance Development Strategy. Asian Development Bank, 1–52. Cited in Atapattu, A. (2009). State of microfinance in Sri Lanka. Prepared for Institute of Microfinance, as part of the project on State of Microfinance in SAARC Countries. Institute of Microfinance

Borba, M. L., Smet, J., Sijbesma, C., & McIntyre, P. (2007). Enhancing livelihoods through sanitation. IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

Garg, S. (2017). Performance consequences on complexity in Public-private Partnerships: Evidence from Indian Highway Projects. International Journal of Engineering Technology Science and Research, 4(7), 1–10.

Geissler, K. H., Goldberg, J., & Leatherman, S. (2016). Using microfinance to facilitate household investment in sanitation in rural Cambodia. Health policy and planning, 31(9), 1193-1199.

Ghalib, A. K., Malki, I., & Imai, K. S. (2011). The impact of microfinance and its role in easing poverty of rural households: Estimations from Pakistan. Kobe University.

Habib, M., & Jubb, C. (2015). Poverty Reduction Policies and Practices in Developing. Asian Development Bank

Hulton, G., & World Health Organization. (2013). Global costs and benefits of drinking-water supply and sanitation interventions to reach the MDG target and universal coverage. World Health Organisation.

Isunju, J. B., Etajak, S., Mwalwega, B., Kimwaga, R., Atekyereza, P., Bazeyo, W., & Ssempebwa, J. C. (2013). Financing of sanitation services in the slums of Kampala and Dar es Salaam. Health, 5(4), 783-791.

Jenkins, M. W., & Scott, B. (2007). Behavioral indicators of household decision-making and demand for sanitation and potential gains from social marketing in Ghana. Social science & medicine, 64(12), 2427-2442.

Joshi, A., & Amadi, C. (2013). Impact of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions on improving health outcomes among school children. Journal of environmental and public health, 2013.

Knapp, A. & Mehta, M. (2004, March). Challenge of financing sanitation for Meeting the Millennium Development Goals. In Challenge of financing sanitation for Meeting the Millennium Development Goals. WSP.

Leigland, J., Trémolet, S., & Ikeda, J. (2016). Achieving Universal Access to Water and Sanitation by 2030. World Bank Publications.

Mehta, M. (2008). Assessing microfinance for water and sanitation, Exploring Opportunities for Sustainable Scaling Up. For the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Final Report.

Norman, G., Fonseca, C., & Jacimovic, R. (2012). Financing water and sanitation for the poor :

Trémolet, S., Kolsky, P., & Perez, E. (2010). Financing on-site sanitation for the poor: a six-country comparative review and analysis. WSP - Water and Sanitation Program of the World Bank,

UNICEF & WHO. (2008). Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation Special Focus on Sanitaion. World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP).

WELL (1998). Introduction to water supply and sanitation projects. Guidance Manual on Water Supply and Sanitation Programmes. WSP - Water and Sanitation Program of the World Bank,

World Bank. (2009). Innovative Finance for Development Solutions. Initiatives of the World Bank Group. World Bank Publications.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Rose F. E. Swaka, Charles M. Rambo, Joyce A. Osogo

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2022. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).