Paul Harerimana Jean


Memory and learning are inseparable concepts in education. Memory influences learning, at the same time, Learning influences memory. This shows how Memory and Learning are strongly linked. Memory is a well-organized Machine. Memory is composed of systematic and well-coordinated structures. This implies that teaching and learning process, to be successful, should take into consideration memory structures and how it functions. Simply, teaching and learning must also be systematic and well-organized to allow the memory to encode and retrieve information. The studies show that memory can affect encoding and retrieval capacity. Teaching and learning are meaningfully influenced and guided by brain-based and learning theories relevant to teaching and classroom practices. Learning theories have significantly impacted teaching strategies and they are relevant to learning in the classrooms. The learner’s ability changes over time as a result of both maturation and experience. One of the most important information processing capacities a child develops is the ability to organize information. This is, in turn, influenced by the child’s ability to categorize. As is the case with other information-processing capacities, this ability changes with both maturation and experience. The level and stages of students are different. Students’ levels and stages should be considered when preparing and delivering lessons in terms of content, strategies, and teaching materials. The discussion and recommendations focused on the important learning theories found to be influential in teaching and learning English language: (1) Memory Storage and Retrieval Strengths theory; (2) Social Development of Learning Theory; (3) Communicative Language Teaching Theory; (4) Game-Based Learning Theory; (5) Family Influence Theory; (6) Zeigarnik and Interleaving Effect Theory; (7) Perceptual Discrimination Theory; (8) Studying and Testing Theory; and (9) The Theory of disuse.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



learning theory, brain, memory, teaching, learning, classroom

Full Text:



Carey, B. (2014). How we learn. New York: Random House

Driscoll, M. (2001). Psychology of learning for assessment (2nd ed). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Driscoll, M.P. (1994). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. Needham, Ma: Allyn && Bacon.

Ferguson, R.F. (2007b). Parenting practices, teenage lifestyles, and academic achievement among African American children. Focus, 25, 18-26.

Gibson, E.J. (1969). Principles of perceptual learning and development. New York: Appleton-Century Crofts.

Gibson, E.J. (1992). How to think about perceptual learning: Twenty-five years later. In H.L. Pick, P. van den Broek & D.C. Knill (Eds.), Cognition: Conceptual and methodological issues (pp. 215- 237). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Glover, J.A. (1989). The “testing” phenomenon: Not gone but nearly forgotten. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 392–399.

Gottfried, A.E., Fleming, J.S., & Gottfried, A.W. (1994). Role of parental motivational practices in children’s academic intrinsic motivation and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(1), 104-113.

Greenberg, D.L., Keane, M.M., Ryan, L.R. & Verfaellie, M. (2009). Impaired category fluency in medial temporal lobe amnesia: The role of episodic memory. Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 10900 –10908.

Grolnick, W.S., Friendly, R.W., & Bellas, V.M. (2009). Parenting and children’s motivation at school. In K.R. Wentzel & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school, 279- 300. New York & London: Routledge.

Hammond, J. (2002). Scaffolding Teaching and Learning in Language and Literacy Education. Newtown, Australia: PETA

Houston, J.P. (2001). Fundamentals of learning and memory, 4th ed. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.

Lutz, S., & Huitt, W. (2003). Information processing and memory: Theory and applications. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date], from

McCloud, C. (2006). Have you filled a bucket today? A guide to daily happiness for kids. Northville, MI: Nelson Publishing & Marketing.

Moalosi, W.T.S. (2013). Assessing Vygotsky’s Model for Students Learning. Educational Research International Educational Research International, 2(3), 1-4. Retrieved from

Neisser, E. (1967). Cognitive psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts

Perrotta, C., Featherstone, G., Aston, H. & Houghton, E. (2013). Game-based Learning: Latest Evidence and Future Directions (NFER Research Programme: Innovation in Education). Slough: NFER

Richards, J.C. (2006). Communicative Language Teaching Today. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved on October 13, 2016 from file:///C:/Users/JEAN%20PAUL/Downloads/Richards-Communicative-Language.pdf

Roediger, H.L., Putnam, A.L & Smith, M.A. (2011). Ten Benefits of Testing and Their Applications to Educational Practice. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 55, 1-6 DOI 10.1016/B978-0-12-387691-1.00001-6

Shelf Awareness (Psychology & Self-Help). How We Learn: The Surprising Truth About When, Where, and Why It Happens by Benedict Carey. Retrieved from

Stefánsson, E., G. (2013). Second Language Acquisition: The Effect of Age and Motivation. Leiðbeinandi: Ásrún Jóhannsdóttir.

The New York Times Book Review. (2015). New Books for Psychiatry & Psychology Courses. How We Learn: The Surprising Truth About When, Where, and Why It Happens by Benedict Carey. Retrieved from

Thompson, C.P., Wenger, S.K., & Bartling, C.A. (1978). How recall facilitates subsequent recall: A reappraisal. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 4, 210–221.

Trybus, J. (2015). “Game-Based Learning: What it is, Why it Works, and Where it’s Going.” New Media Institute. Retrieved December 1, 2016 from /game-based-learning--what-it-is-why-it -works-and-where-its-going.html.

Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organization of memory (pp. 381 –403). New York: Academic Press

Usher, A., & Kober, N. (2012). What roles do parent involvement, family background, and culture play in student motivation? Manuscript submitted for publication, Graduate School of Education and Human Development, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. Retrieved December 4, 2015 from

Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in Society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Vygotsky, L.S. (1962). Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in Society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Harerimana Jean Paul

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).