Peter Imbriale, Alina Zapalska


Studies on critical thinking skills development with specific curriculum materials and instructional methods in economics are few and have been highly theoretical. This paper outlines the framework for developing the 21st Century Bloom’s Taxonomy model across a four-year undergraduate curriculum, enabling students to master critical thinking skills through a clearly defined six-stage process. An example Country Report project from an undergraduate Principles of Macroeconomics course is presented to demonstrate a specific strategy for advancing and assessing critical thinking skills. A critical thinking assessment instrument is also presented to compare student and instructor evaluations from the Country Report assignment.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



Bloom’s Taxonomy, critical thinking, assessment, economic education

Full Text:



Adams, B. (1999). Nursing education for critical thinking: An integrative review. Journal of Nursing Education, 38(3), 111-119.

Anderson, L. and D. Krathwohl (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: a Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Longman, New York.

Bloom, B., T. Hasting, and G. Maclaus. (1971). Handbook on Formative and Summative Evaluation of Student Learning. New York: McGraw Hill.

Bloom, B. (1974). The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Affective and Cognitive Domains New York: David McKay Company, Inc.

Coleman, J., P. Mason, and J. Steagall (2012). Does A Business Curriculum Develop Or Filter Critical Thinking? American Journal of Business Education, July/August 2012 5(4), 409-416.

Ennis, R. (2008). Nationwide testing of critical thinking for higher education: Vigilance required. Teaching Philosophy, 31(1), 1-26.

Facione, P., N. Facione, and C. Giancarlo (2000). The disposition toward critical thinking: Its character, measurement, and relation to critical thinking skill. Informal Logic, 20(1), 61-84.

Facione, P., N. Facione, and C. Giancarlo (2001). California critical thinking disposition inventory: Inventory manual. Millbrae, CA: The California Academic Press.

Heinrich, W., G. Habron, H. Johnson, and L. Goralnik. (2015). Critical Thinking Assessment across Four Sustainability-Related Experiential Learning Settings. Journal of Experiential Education, Vol. 38(4) 373–393.

Huba, M. and J. Freed (2000). Learner-Centered Assessment on College Campuses: Shifting the Focus from Teaching to Learning. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Springer, C. and F. Borthick (2004). Business Simulation to Stage Critical Thinking in Introductory Accounting: Rationale, Design, and Implementation. Issues in Accounting Education, 19(3), 277-303.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Peter Imbriale, Alina Zapalska

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2021. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).