Ramlan Mustapha, Mazdaruddin Isa, Haizuan Yunus


Academic dishonesty becoming a threat to the academic world across the globe. Most studies focus on students of higher learning, but very less research focusing on Muslim students generally. Therefore, this study will examine the empirical and critical phenomena of academic dishonesty in the context of Muslim students in Malaysia. This research proposed a framework based on modified Theory of Planned Behavior by including Spiritual Intelligence as an additional predictor. The study employs quantitative method bases on survey strategy through questionnaires. The study is also based on primary data collected from 300 Muslim students in a selected public University in Malaysia. The study extended the previous study conducted the same discussion using convenience sampling. The Spiritual intelligence represented additional independent variables instead attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavior while behavior intention represented the dependent variable. In this study, the relationship had been analyzed using Smart-PLS 2.0 Beta. Two measured variables (attitude and spiritual intelligence) found a positive relationship between intentions to cheat among Malaysian Muslim students. However implication for stakeholder, educators and higher education’s policy maker are discussed, and suggestions for further research are proposed.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



scientific attitude, virtual reality, hybrid learning, chemical bonding

Full Text:



Alleyne, P., & Phillips, K. (2011). Exploring Academic Dishonesty among University Students in Barbados: An Extension to the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Journal of Academic Ethics, 9(4), 323–338

Armitage, C. J., Norman, P., & Conner, M. (2002). Can the Theory of Planned Behaviour mediate the effects of age, gender and multidimensional health locus of control? British Journal of Health Psychology, 7, 299–316.doi:10.1348/135910702760213698

Babbie, Earl R. (1998). The Practice of Social Research. 8th Edition. Wadsworth Pub. Co. Belmont, CA

Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74–94. doi:10.1177/009207038801600107

Bloodgood, J. M., Turnley, W. H., & Mudrack, P. (2008). The influence of ethics instruction, religiosity, and intelligence on cheating behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 82(3), 557–571. doi:10.1007/s10551-007-9576-0

Bruggeman, E. L., & Hart, K. J. (1996). Cheating, Lying, and Moral Reasoning by Religious and Secular High School Students. The Journal of Educational Research. doi:10.1080/00220671.1996.9941337

Borba, M. (2001). Building Moral Intelligence: The seven essential virtues that teach kids to do the right thing. California, Jessey-Bass.

Chin, W. W. (2010). How to write up and report PLS analysis. In Vinzi, V.E., Chin, W. W., Henseler, J. & Wang, H (Eds.), Handbook of Partial Least Squares: Concepts, Methods and Applications. (pp. 655-690). Berlin: Springer-Verlag

Chuah, C. H., Stewart, N., & Lee, J. W. C. (2012). Attitudes of Business Students’ Toward Plagiarism. Journal of Academic Ethics, 10(3), 185–199. doi:10.1007/s10805-012-9157-4

Diamantopoulos, A., & Siguaw, J. A. (2000). Introducing LISREL: A guide for the uninitiated. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 129, 171. doi:10.4135/9781849209359

Domeova, L, Jindrova, A,. (2013). Unethical Behaviour of the Student of the Czech University of Life Sciences. International Educations Studies; vol 6 (11), 77-85. Doi: 10.5539/ies.v6n11p77.

Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Huyn, H. H. (2011). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education, New York, (Vol. 38). doi:10.1037/032719

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.

Graham, J. W., Hofer, S. M., Donaldson, S. I., MacKinnon, D. P., & Schafer, J. L. (1997). Analysis with missing data in prevention research. The Science of Prevention: Methodological Advances from Alcohol and Substance Abuse Research, (October 1995), 325–366.

Hadijah Iberahim, Norashikin Hussein, Nusrah Samat & Fauziah Noordin (2013). Academic dishonesty: Why business student participate in these practice?. Social and behavioral Sciences.90 (2013). 152-156.

Harding, T. S., Mayhew, M. J., Finelli, C. J., & Carpenter, D. D. (2007). The Theory of Planned Behavior as a Model of Academic Dishonesty in Engineering and Humanities Undergraduates. Ethics & Behavior, 17(3), 255–279. doi:10.1080/10508420701519239

Harris Salleh, M. (2011). Academic Dishonesty: Factor That’s Contribute Plagiarism in A Technical College in Malaysia, Kolokium Pembentangan Penyelidikan POLIMAS Jun 2011.

Hassan, T. (2008). Locus of Control, mental ability and achievement motivation as determinants of potential for academic cheating. Proceeding for International Conference of Education, Research & innovation (ICERI 2008), Madrid, Spain.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis. Vectors. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2011.02.019

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a Silver Bullet. The Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139–152. doi:10.2753/MTP1069-6679190202

Hair, J. F. J., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Long Range Planning (Vol. 46). doi:10.1016/j.lrp.2013.01.002

Hassan, T. & Ogunmakin, A. O. (2010). Emotional intelligence, academic self-efficacy, academic stress as predictors of potential for academic cheating among some Nigerian undergraduate students. Proceedings of International Conference of Education, Research & Innovation (ICERI 2010), Madrid, Spain, 13th-17thNov., 2010.

Henseler, J., & Chin, W. W. (2010). A Comparison of approaches for the analysis of interaction effects between latent variables using partial least squares path modeling. Structural Equation Modeling, 17(1), 82–109

Henning, M., Malpas, P., Ram, S., Doherty, I., Kelly, F., & Hawken, S. J. (2011). Can engagement in academic dishonesty be described as planned behaviour or lack of self-control? Pharmacy Education, 11(1), 158–165.

Hsiao, C.-H., & Yang, C. (2011). The Impact of Professional Unethical Beliefs on Cheating Intention. Ethics & Behavior, 21(4), 301–316. doi:10.1080/10508422.2011.585597

Hsiao, C. H. (2015). Impact of ethical and affective variables on cheating: comparison of undergraduate students with and without jobs. Higher Education, 69(1), 55–77. doi:10.1007/s10734-014-9761-x

Husu, J. & Tirri, K. (2003) A Case Study Approach To Study One Teachers’ Moral Reflection. Teaching and Teacher Education, 19, 345–357

Iberahim, H., Hussein, N., Samat, N., Noordin, F., & Daud, N. (2013). Academic Dishonesty: Why Business Students Participate in these Practices? Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 90, 152–156. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.07.076

Jumahat, T., Bensaid, B. & Nordin, M. S. (2014). Pembinaan kerangka konsep dan eksplorasi awal model pengukuran kecerdasan spiritual dari perspektif Islam. The 9th International Malaysian Studies Conference, 1-13.

Jones, D. R. L. (2011). Academic Dishonesty: Are more students cheating? Business Communication Quarterly. 74, 141-150.

Kalhori, Z., (2014). The Relationship between Teacher–Student Rapport and students Willingness to Cheat. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 136 (2014). pp 153-158.

Kothari, C. R. (2012). Research Methodology: An introduction. Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques, IX, 418. doi: Goddard, W. & Melville, S.

Kerlinger, F. N. and Lee, H. B. (2000). Foundations of Behavioral Research (4th ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers

Koul, R. (2012). Multiple motivational goals, values, and willingness to cheat. International Journal of Education Research, 56(2012), 1-9. Doi: org/10.106/j.ijer.2012.10.002.

Latisha Asmaak Shafiee & Surina Nayan. (2012). The Net Generation and Academic Dishonesty in Malaysia. Technology Innovations in Education. pp 181-186.

Llewellyn, P. G. & Rodriguez, C. (2015). Does Academic Dishonesty Relate to Fraud Theory? A Comparative Analysis. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 5(3), 1–6.

Lin, C.-H. S., & Wen, L.-Y. M. (2006). Academic dishonesty in higher education—a nationwide study in Taiwan. Higher Education, 54(1), 85–97. Doi: 10.1007/s10734-006-9047-z

Lupton, R. A., and Chapman K. J. (2002). Russian And American College Students‘ Attitudes, Perceptions, And Tendencies Towards Cheating. Educational Research. 44(1): 17–27

Olafson, L., Schraw, G., Nadelson, L., Nadelson, S., & Kehrwald, N. (2013). Exploring the Judgment–Action Gap: College Students and Academic Dishonesty. Ethics & Behavior, 23(2), 148–162. doi:10.1080/10508422.2012.714247

Olusula, O. I., Ajayi, & Samson, O. (2015). Moral Intelligence: an Antidote to Examination Malpractices in Nigerian Schools. Universal Journal of educational Research, 3(1): 32-38.

Malhotra, N. K. (1999). Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation. The Handbook of Marketing Research Uses Misuses and Future Advances (Vol. 10).

McCabe, D. L. (1992). The influence of situational ethics on cheating among college students. Sociological Inquiry, 62(3), 365–374. doi:10.1111/j.1475-682X.1992.tb00287.x

McCabe, D. L., Trevino, L. K., & Butterfield, K. D. (2002). Honor codes and other contextual influences on academic integrity: A replication and extension to modified honor code settings. Research in Higher Education, 43(3), 357–378. doi:10.1023/A:1014893102151

Mohd Majid Konting (2004). Kaedah Penyelidikan Pendidikan. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Moten, A. R. (2014). Academic dishonesty and misconduct: Curbing plagiarism in the Muslim world. Intellectual Discourse, 22(2), 167–189.

Nursiha Saidin, Nurliyana Isa (2012). Investigating Academic Dishonesty among Language Teacher Trainee: The Why and How of Cheating. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 90, 522-529

Okasuade & Oluwatayo, J. (2011). Emotional Intelligence as Determinant of potential for Academic Cheating among Senior Secondary School Students in Ondo State. Developing Country Studies, Vol 1(1), 1-8.

Olusula, O. I., Ajayi, & Samson, O. (2015). Moral Intelligence: an Antidote to Examination Malpractices in Nigerian Schools. Universal Journal of educational Research, 3(1): 32-38.

Nursiha Saidin, Nurliyana Isa. (2013). Investigating Academic Dishonesty among Language Teacher Trainee: The Why and How of Cheating. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 90, 522-529

Nonis, S., & Swift, C. O. (2001). An Examination of the Relationship between Academic Dishonesty and Workplace Dishonesty: A Multicampus Investigation. Journal of Education for Business, 77(2), 69–77. doi:10.1080/08832320109599052

Ramlan M, Zaharah. H. dan Saedah. S. (2016). ketidakjujuran akademik dalam kalangan mahasiswa muslim: analisis perbandingan tahun 2014-2015. Jurnal Kurikulum & Pengajaran Asia Pasifik, 4(1), 41–55.

Ramayah, T., Lee, J. W. C., & Lim, S. (2012). Sustaining the environment through recycling: An empirical study. Journal of Environmental Management, 102, 141–147. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.02.025

Reisenwitz, T. H. (2012), Can A Business Ethics Course Affect Academic Dishonesty?. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, Vol 16 (2) 115-129.

Sekaran, U. & Bougie, R. (2010). Research Methods in Business: A skill Building Approach. 5th Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Singapore, PP, 488.

Simkin, M., & McLeod, A. (2010). Why do college students cheat? Journal of Business Ethics. 94(3)

Stone, T. H, Jennifer L. Kisamore, I. M. Jawahar. (2007). Predicting Academic Dishonesty. ASAC, Ottawa, Ontario, pp 40-56.

Stone, T. H., Jawahar, I. M., & Kisamore, J. L. (2010). Predicting Academic Misconduct Intentions and Behavior Using the Theory of Planned Behavior and Personality. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 32(1), 35–45. doi:10.1080/01973530903539895

Stone, T. H., Jawahar, I. M., & Kisamore, J. L. (2009). Using the theory of planned behavior and cheating justifications to predict academic misconduct. Career Development International, 14(3), 221–241. doi:10.1108/13620430910966415

Urbach, N., Smolnik, S., & Riempp, G. (2010). An empirical investigation of employee portal success. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 19(3), 184-206.

Quah, C. H., Stewart, N., & Lee, J. W. C. (2012). Attitudes of Business Students’ Toward Plagiarism. Journal of Academic Ethics, 10(3), 185–199. doi:10.1007/s10805-012-9157-4

Tamara B. Murdock & Eric M. Anderman. (2006). Motivational Perspective on Student Cheating: toward an Integrated model of Academic Dishonesty. Educational Psychologist. 41(3), 129-145.

Teixeira, A. A. C., & de Fatima Oliveira Rocha, M. (2010). Academic Misconduct in Portugal: Results from a Large Scale Survey to University Economics/Business Students. Journal of Academic Ethics, 8(1), 21–41. doi:10.1007/s10805-010-9102-3

Vlaardingerbroek, B., Shehab, S. S., & Alameh, S. K. (2011). The Problem of open cheating and invigilator compliance in the Lebanese Brevet and Baccalaureate examinations. International Journal of Educational Development, 31, 297-302.

Whitley, B. E., Jr. (1998). Factors associated with cheating among college students: A Review. Research in Higher education, 39, 235-274.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v0i0.2433


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Ramlan Mustapha, Mazdaruddin Isa, Haizuan Yunus

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).