Babatunde Adeniyi Adeyemi, Taiwo Funmilayo Akinboyewa


The study investigated the relationship among Cognitive Styles, Parental Involvement and Learning Outcomes of pupils in Social Studies in Ondo State. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population for the study comprised primary III pupils and their parents in Ondo State. The sample size consisted of 240 primary III school pupils and 240 parents selected using multistage sampling procedure. One senatorial district was selected from the state using simple random sampling technique. Two Local Government Areas (LGAs) were selected from the sampled senatorial district in Ondo State using simple random sampling technique. From each of the two selected primary schools, 30 pupils and 30 parents each from two intact classes were randomly selected for the study. Three instruments were used for data collection, they are: Cognitive Styles Questionnaire (CSQ), Pupils’ End of Term Examination Score in Social Studies (PETES) and Parental Interview Schedule (PIS). The data collected were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages and multiple regression analysis statistics. The results showed that there was no significant relationship between cognitive styles and learning outcomes (cognitive styles yielded a coefficient regression (R) of .152 and a correlation square (R2) of .023). There was also no significant relationship between parental involvement and learning outcomes (parental involvement yielded a coefficient regression (R) of .118 and a correlation square (R2) of .014). These values were statistically significant at 0.05 probability level. In addition, there was no significant relative contribution of cognitive styles and parental involvement to learning outcomes of pupils in lower primary schools. The result indicated that field independent and field dependent cognitive styles t-values = -1.696 and -1.581 respectively while their respective beta weight values = -.108 and -.101. Also, parental involvement t-value = 1.791 and beta weight = .114. The study concluded that parental involvement was a very good predictor of pupils’ learning outcomes in Social Studies in lower primary school in Ondo State.         


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



learning outcomes, cognitive styles, parental involvement, pupils, social studies

Full Text:



Adeyemi, M. A. (1992). Cognitive styles and sex as mediators of biology retention test performance of students exposed to two instructional modes in Benin City, Nigeria. International Journal of Education Development, 12 (1) 3-12.

Aljaberi, N. M. & Gheith, E. (2015) University Students’ level of metacognitive thinking and their ability to solve problems. American International Journal Contemporary Research 5(3) 121-134.

Armstrong P. (2001). A Taxonomy of Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom Taxonomy of Education Objectives. Centre for Teaching Vanderbilt University.

Baharin A. (2000). Teaching effectiveness and staff professional development programmes in HEI programmes in HEI in Malaysia. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, University of Birmingham, UK.

Baker, L. & Scher, D. (2002). Beginning readers’ motivation for reading in relation to parental beliefs & home reading experiences. Reading psychology, 23, 239-269

Biggs J. (2009). Teaching and learning in higher education: New Trends and Innovations. University of Aveiro.

Bower, H. A. & Griffing D. (2018). Can the Epstein model of Parental Involvement work in a High-Minority, High-Poverty Elementary School? A case study. Professional School Counselling

Bruno, U. O. (2009). Cognitive styles and person–environment fit: Investigating the consequences of cognitive (mis)fit. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 18(2):167-198.

Danili, E. and Reid, N. (2006). Cognitive factors that can potentially affect pupils’ test performance, Chemistry education: Research and practice. Retrieved May 2, 2018:

Dunn R. (1990) Understanding the Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Model and the need for individual diagnosis and prescription. Journal of Reading, Writing and Learning Disabilities International. 6(3) 223-347.

Epstein, J. L. (2001). School, family, and community partnerships: preparing educators and improving schools. Boulder, co: Westview.

Etoum, A. (2004). Cognitive psychology. New York: Barely Limited Inc.

Frost, J. L., Wortham, S. C. & Reifel, S. C. (2008). Excerpt from play and child development. Early Childhood Education. U.S. 4th Edition. Pg 158-159.

Mwoma, T. (2008). Parental involvement and attachment of Children. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Kenyatta University.

Muhammed, T. (2010). Cognitive styles field dependent/independent and scientific achievement of male and female students of Zamfara state college of education, Maru, Nigeria.

Okobla, D. O. (2000) Interaction effect of mastery learning strategy and cognitive style on secondary school students achievement in Social Studies Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Delta State University Abraka.

Okwo F. A. & Otubah, S. (2007) Influence of gender and cognitive style on students’ achievement in physics essay test journal of the Science Teachers Association of Nigeria 42(1) 85-88.

Oyekan, S. O. (2006). Foundations of teachers’ education. Ibadan. Ben Quality Prints.

Riding, R. J. and Rayner; S. G. (2000). International perspectives on individual difference: Cognitive Styles.

Rain, L. and William, K., (2011). Parental involvement and students' academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 13, 1–12.

Reynolds, A. & Clements, M. (2005) Parental Involvement and Children’s School Success in Patrilakou, E., N. Welssberg, R. P. Redding, S. & Walberg, H. J. (eds) School-Family Partnerships: Promoting the Social, Emotional and Academic Growth pf Children (109-127) New York: Teachers College Press.

Sanker, C. S., & Raju, P. K. (2011) Innovations and Research. Journal of STEM Education: 12(7), pg. 45-56.

Rowley S. J. Schulenburg, J. E. (2007) Predictors of Parent Involvement across Contexts in Asia American and European American Families. Journal of Comparative Family Studies 38(1); 1-29.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Babatunde Adeniyi Adeyemi, Taiwo Funmilayo Akinboyewa

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2021. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).