A DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCALE FOR PROBLEM SOLVING IN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION: THE STUDY OF VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY

Ayşegül Ulutas, Mehmet Sağlam

Abstract


This study aims to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess the problem solving skills of five-year-old children receiving environmental education. The study included 156 children selected from the study population using the simple random sampling method. The literature was reviewed for Turkish and foreign studies on environmental education for children, improvement of problem solving skills, environmental education and problem solving skills to develop the Scale for Problem Solving in Environmental Education (SPSEE). Specialists' opinions were obtained, exploratory factor analysis was performed, and total item correlation, bottom and top group mean difference, Cronbach's Alpha internal consistency coefficient and test-retest correlation coefficients were calculated. The data were analysed using the SPSS 22 package. The exploratory factor analysis showed that the scale has 14 questions and two factors. Questions were prepared for each activity and the answers for these questions were formed in a three-point Likert-type scale. One of the researchers applied this scale to each child. The researchers prepared a guidebook, activities, a CD including these activities and a booklet including pictures to apply the scale. The pictures in the booklet were obtained from various activity books used in preschool education. The first researcher applied the scale by asking the questions in the booklet. The items of the SPSEE were found to sufficiently discriminate the individuals according to the scale's factor loads and total item correlation, and the study sample was determined to be appropriate and sufficient for factor analysis. The significant difference (p<0.01) between the mean scores of the bottom 27% and top 27% groups was used to determine how the SPSEE subscales discriminated the individuals who have the characteristic to be assessed at a higher and lower level. Test-retest correlation and the Cronbach's Alpha coefficient were used for the reliability analyses of the SPSEE. The Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was found to be 0.77 for the scale. During the test-retest analysis, a high correlation was observed between the scores of the two tests performed at a 20-day interval concerning the subscale and total scores. The validity and reliability analyses indicated that the Scale for Problem Solving in Environmental Education (SPSEE) is valid and reliable for five-year-old children.

 

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Keywords


environmental education, problem solving, scale development, validity and reliability

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejes.v0i0.287

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