Halimatus Saadiah Abdul Wahid, Noor Hanim Rahmat, Nur Syakirah Dzuradeen, Nurhidayu Abdul Kadir


Online learning plays a crucial role in our education system, especially in this time of COVID-19 pandemic, in which online learning is widely and fully implemented in the education system across the world. It is not easy to ensure consistent engagement from students with this current norm in education. Are the students engaging with their peers, their instructor or even with the content of the course? Referring to Moore’s interaction framework, this study is aimed to examine further engagement methods used in online classrooms. A set of survey consists of 24 items were distributed and completed by fifty-five students from a public university in Malaysia. The results revealed the functions of the learner-to-learner, learner-to-instructor, and learner-to-content engagements in the online classroom, in which learner-to-instructor engagement plays the most significant role in maintaining students’ engagement. The findings of the study could serve as one of the references by educators and even students to improve strategies and performances in online learning.

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online learning, students’ engagement, learner-learner, learner-instructor, learner-content

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