Thouqan Saleem Yakoub Masadeh


The main aim of this study was to investigate the levels of nomophobia and cyberloafing among undergraduate students. Participants were 65 undergraduates from the department of English at Najran University. Nomophobia questionnaire (NMP-Q) and the cyberloafing scale were used as main instruments for data collection. The descriptive, inferential and analytical approach was used. Results indicated that undergraduate students had moderate levels of nomophobia and their practice levels of cyberloafing behaviors were somehow high. The most prominent factors that were affecting their nomophobia levels were their inability to keep in touch with their families and friends, anxiety if their families could not contact them once their smartphones are not ready to use, desire to keep checking their smartphones if they could not check them for a while, and battery run out in their smartphones. In accordance with cyberloafing, results showed that posting status updates on social networks, chatting with friends, reading tweets, retweeting the tweets they like, downloading needed applications, and watching videos online were the behaviors that were mostly practiced by the majority of undergraduates.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


nomophobia; cyberloafing; smartphone use; university undergraduates; Najran University

Full Text:



Adnan, M. & Gezgin, D. (2016). A Modern Phobia: Prevalence of Nomophobia among College Students Ankara University, Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences, 49 (1): 141-158.

Ak, & Yildirim, S. (2018). Nomophobia among Undergraduate Students and its Link to Mobile Learning, Proceedings of EDULEARN18 Conference 2nd-4th July 2018, Palma, Mallorca, Spain.

Akbulut, Y., Dursun, O. O., Donmez, O., & Sahin, Y. L. (2016). In Search of a Measure to Investigate Cyberloafing in Educational Settings, Computers in Human Behavior, 55: 616-625.

Aybas, M. & Gungor, A. (2020). Does Cyberloafing Reduce Academic performance? A Comparative Study between Turkey and Poland, Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica, 29 (5). DOI: 10.24205/03276716.2020.1101

Barry, S., Murphy, K. & Drew, S. (2015). From Deconstructive Misalignment to Constructive Alignment: Exploring Student Uses of Mobile Technologies in University Classrooms, Computers & Education, 81: 202–210.

Baturay, M. H., Toker, S. (2015). An Investigation of the Impact of Demographic on Cyberloafing from an Educational Setting Angle, Computers in Human Behavior, 50: 358-366.

Becker, M., Alzahabi, R., & Hopwood, C. (2013). Media Multitasking is Associated with Symptoms of Depression and Social Anxiety. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 16(2): 132-135.

Bhattacharya, S., Bashar, M., Srivastava, A. & Singh, A. (2019). Nomophobia: No Mobile Phone Phobia, Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 8: 1297-300.

Blanchard, A. & Henle, C. A. (2008). Correlates of Different Forms of Cyberloafing: the Role of Norms and External Locus of Control, Computers in Human Behavior, 24 (3): 1067-1084.

Boumosleh, J & Jaalouk, D. (2018). Smartphone Addiction among University Students and its Relationship with Academic Performance, Global Journal of Health Science, 10 (1). DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v10n1p48

Daei, A., Ashrafi-riza, H. & Soleymani, M. (2019). Nomophobia and Health Hazards: Smartphone Use and Addiction among University Students, international Journal of Preventive Medicine, 10. Doi: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_184_19

Durak, H. Y. (2019). Cyberloafing in Learning Environments Where Online Social Networking Sites are Used as Learning Tools: Antecedents and Consequences, Journal of Educational Computing Research, 58 (3): 539-569.

Elfeky, A. I. M. & Masadeh, T. S. Y. (2016). The Effect of Mobile Learning on Students' Achievement and Conversational Skills, International Journal of Higher Education, 5 (3). doi:10.5430/ijhe.v5n3p20

Gerow, J. E., Galluch, P. S. & Thatcher, J. B. (2010). To Slack or not to Slack: Internet Usage in the Classroom, Journal of Information Technology: Theory and Implication, 11, (3).

Gezgin, D. M. (2017). Exploring the Influence of the Patterns of Mobile Internet Use on university Students' Nomophobia Levels, European Journal of Education Studies, 3 (6).

Gezgin, D. M. & Çakır, Ö. (2016). Analysis of Nomofobic Behaviors of Adolescents Regarding Various Factors, Journal of Human Sciences, 13 (2): 2504-2519.

Grinols, A., & Rajesh, R. (2014). Multitasking with Smartphones in the College Classroom. Business and Professional Communication Quarterly, 77 (1): 89-95.

Guerrero, A. J. Belmonte, J. L. Rodríguez, J. M. & García, A. M. (2020). Nomophobia: Impact of Cell Phone Use and Time to Rest among Teacher Students, Heliyon, 6.

Kalaskar, P. B. (2015). A Study of Awareness of Development of Nomophobia Condition in Smartphone User Management Students in Pune City. ASM’s International E-Journal on Ongoing Research in Management and IT, 10: 320-326.

King, A. L., Valença, A. M. & Nardi, A. E. (2010). Nomophobia: The Mobile Phone in Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia: Reducing Phobias or Worsening of Dependence? Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, 23 (1): 52-54. DOI: 10.1097/WNN.0b013e3181b7eabc

King, A. L., Valença, A. M., Silva, A. C., Sancassiani, F., Machado, S., Nardi, A. E. (2014). Nomophobia: Impact of Cell Phone Use Interfering with Symptoms and Emotions of Individuals with Panic Disorder Compared with a Control Group, Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health, 10: 28-35. DOI: 10.2174/1745017901410010028

Yeik, K. K. (2018). Assessing Cyberloafing Behavior among University Students: A Validation of the Cyberloafing Scale, Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum. 26 (1): 409 – 424.

Lee, S., Kim, M., Mendoza, J. S., & McDonough, I. M. (2018). Addicted to Cellphones: Exploring the Psychometric Properties between the Nomophobia Questionnaire and Obsessiveness in College Students, Heliyon, 4 (11). DOI:

Lepp A, Barkley J. E., & Karpinski, A. C. (2014). The Relationship between Cell Phone Use, Academic Performance, Anxiety, and Satisfaction with Life in College Students, Computers in Human Behavior, 31: 343-350.

Lim, V.K.G. (2002). The IT Way of Loafing on the Job: Cyberloafing, Neutralizing and Organizational Justice, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23 (5). Doi:,

Madhusudan, M., Sudarshan, B., Sanjay, T., Gopi1, A., & Fernandes, S. (2017). Nomophobia and its Determinants among the Students of a Medical College in Kerala, International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 6 (6).

Masadeh, T. S. Y. & Elfeky, A. I. M. (2016). Efficacy of Open-Source Learning Management Systems in Developing the Teaching Skills of English Language Student Teachers, American Journal of Educational Research, 4(4), 329-337.

Ozdemir. B., Cakir, O. & Hussain, I. (2018). Prevalence of Nomophobia among University Students: A Comparative Study of Pakistani and Turkish Undergraduate Students, EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14 (4): 1519-1532.

Shaheen, H., Alkorma, S. & Alkalash, S. (2020). Nomophobia among Medical Residents, Menoufia Medical Journal, 33 (3): 1094-110. DOI: 10.4103/mmj.mmj_17_20

Qutishata, M., Lazarusa, E., R., Razmy, M. & Packianathan, S. (2020). University Students’ Nomophobia Prevalence, Sociodemographic Factors and Relationship with Academic Performance at a University in Oman, International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences, 13.

Ragan, E. D., Jennings, S. R., Massey, J. D., & Doolittle, P. E. (2014). Unregulated Use of Laptops over Time in Large Lecture Classes. Computers & Education, 78: 78-86.

Roberts, J. A., Yaya, L. H., & Manolis, C. (2014). The Invisible Addiction: Cell-Phone Activities and Addiction among Male and Female College Students, Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 3 (4).

Rosen, L. D., Carrier, L. M., & Cheever, N. A. (2013). Facebook and Texting Made me Do it: Media-Induced Task Switching while Studying. Computers in Human Behavior, 29 (3): 948-958.

Saritepeci, M. (2019). Predictors of Cyberloafing among high school students: unauthorized access to school network, metacognitive awareness and smartphone addiction. Educ Inf Technol, 25, 2201–2219.

Soh. P. C. & Yeik, K. K., & Lim, V. K. (2018). Understanding Cyberloafing by Students through the Lens of an Extended Theory of Planned Behavior, First Monday, 23 (6). DOI:

Taneja, A., V. Fiore, V., & Fischer, B. (2015). Cyber-Slacking in the Classroom: Potential for Digital Distraction in the New Age, Computers & Education, volume 82: 141–151. Doi:

Wu, J., Mei, W. & Ugrin, J. (2017). Student Cyberloafing In and Out of the Classroom in China and the Relationship with Student Performance, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 21 (3).

Yildirim C, Correia A. P. (2015). Exploring the Dimensions of Nomophobia: Development and Validation of a Self-Reported Questionnaire, Computers in Human Behavior, 49: 130-137.

Yılmaza, F. G. K., Yılmaz, R., Öztürk, H. T., Sezer, B., & Karademir, T. (2015). Cyberloafing as a Barrier to the Successful Integration of Information and Communication Technologies into Teaching and Learning Environments, Computers in Human Behavior, 45: 290-298.

Zahid, B. (2019). Nomophobia an Emerging Fear: An Experimental Exploration among University Students, Peshawar Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 9 (1): 67-82. DOI: 2



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Thouqan Saleem Yakoub Masadeh

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).