Jumar P. Donque


The main thrust of this study was to find out the mediating effect of competence on the relationship between efficiency and accomplishments of police investigators’ who are graduates of the Criminal Investigation Course (CIC) in their respective areas of jurisdiction within the General Santos City Police Office (GSCPO), Police Regional Office XII. This study employed a non-experimental quantitative design utilizing the descriptive correlation technique of research. The respondents of this study were 200 police investigators. It was found out the level of efficiency of police investigators was very high in access to information and access to support and resources, while high in access to opportunity. On the other hand, the level of accomplishment of police investigators was very high in striving, while high in participation, willingness to work, maintaining good work, and leadership. Additionally, the level of competence of police investigators was very high in technical and moral competence, while high in behavioral competence. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between efficiency and accomplishment, efficiency and competence, and competence and accomplishments. Lastly, on the mediating effect of transformational leadership practices there was a direct effect of efficiency and accomplishments, efficiency and competence, and competence and accomplishments.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


criminology, police investigators, competence, efficiency, accomplishments, mediation, Philippines

Full Text:



Akca, D., & Eastwood, J. (2021). The impact of individual differences on investigative interviewing performance: a test of the police interviewing competencies inventory and the five-factor model. Police Practice and Research, 22(1), 1027-1045.

Bakhtiar, H. S., Sofyan, A. M., Muhadar, M., & Soewondo, S. S. (2022). The essence of autopsy in the criminal investigation process. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 8(10), 9-16.

Bhowmick, S., & Mulla, Z. (2021). Who gets burnout and when? The role of personality, job control, and organizational identification in predicting burnout among police officers. Journal of police and criminal psychology, 36, 243-255.

Bolger, P. C., & Walters, G. D. (2019). The relationship between police procedural justice, police legitimacy, and people's willingness to cooperate with law enforcement: A meta-analysis. Journal of criminal justice, 60, 93-99.

Bondarenko, V., Okhrimenko, I., Tverdokhvalova, I., Mannapova, K., & Prontenko, K. (2020). Formation of the professionally significant skills and competencies of future police officers during studying at higher educational institutions. Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie Multidimensionala, 12(3), 246-267.

Bombaerts, G., Spahn, A., & Royakkers, L. (2022). Can creativity be a collective virtue? Insights for the ethics of innovation. Journal of Business Ethics, 179(3), 907-918.

Brimbal, L., Meissner, C. A., Kleinman, S. M., Phillips, E. L., Atkinson, D. J., Dianiska, R. E., ... & Jones, M. S. (2021). Evaluating the benefits of a rapport-based approach to investigative interviews: A training study with law enforcement investigators. Law and human behavior, 45(1), 55.

Bull, R. (2019). Roar or “PEACE”: Is it a “tall story?”. In The Routledge international handbook of legal and investigative psychology (pp. 20-36). Routledge.

Bloksgaard, L., Fekjær, S. B., & Møberg, R. J. (2020). Conceptions of gender and competencies among police recruits in Scandinavia. Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies.

Bondarenko, V., Okhrimenko, I., Yevdokimova, O., Sydorchuk, N., Dzhezhyk, O., Boichuk, I., ... & Bloshchynskyi, I. (2020). Professional Skills and Competencies of the Future Police Officers. International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology. International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology, (9 (5)), 35-43.

Cohen, G. (2021). Public administration training in basic police academies: A 50- state comparative analysis. The American Review of Public Administration, 51(5), 345-359.

Chen, Z. (2018). Job satisfaction among frontline police officer`s in China: The role of demographic, work-related, organizational and social factors. Psychology, Crime & Law, 24(9), 895-914.

Chin et al. (2022). Rethinking Replication in Empirical Legal Research. University of Western Australia Law Review, 49(2), 76-112.

Chitra, T., & Karunanidhi, S. (2021). The impact of resilience training on occupational stress, resilience, job satisfaction, and psychological well-being of female police officers. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 36(1), 8-23.

Chu, D. C. (2018). Officers’ views on women in policing: A comparison of male and female police officers in the United Arab Emirates and Taiwan. Policing: An International Journal.

Crane, M. F., Rapport, F., Callen, J., Boga, D., Gucciardi, D. F., & Sinclair, L. (2019). Military police investigator perspectives of a new self-reflective approach to strengthening resilience: A qualitative study. Military Psychology, 31(5), 384-396.

Clauss, T., Abebe, M., Tangpong, C., & Hock, M. (2019). Strategic agility, business model innovation, and firm performance: an empirical investigation. IEEE transactions on engineering management, 68(3), 767-784.

Dio, R. V., Apostol, S. M. G., & Madrazo, A. L. (2019). Drug Surrenderers and Crime Statistics During the Implementation of Project Double Barrel (PDB) in the Philippines. International Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, 4(1), 31-43.

Duran, F., Woodhams, J., & Bishopp, D. (2019). An interview study of the experiences of police officers in regard to psychological contract and wellbeing. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 34(2), 184-198.

Duxbury, L., Bardoel, A., & Halinski, M. (2021). ‘Bringing the Badge home’: exploring the relationship between role overload, work-family conflict, and stress in police officers. Policing and Society, 31(8), 997-1016.

Eck, J. E., & Rossmo, D. K. (2019). The new detective: Rethinking criminal investigations. Criminology & public policy, 18(3), 601-622.

Engel, R. S., McManus, H. D., & Herold, T. D. (2020). Does de‐escalation training work? A systematic review and call for evidence in police use‐of‐force reform. Criminology & Public Policy, 19(3), 721-759.

Fukuzaki, T., & Iwata, N. (2022). The Impact of Negative and Positive Affectivity on the Relationship Between Work-Related Psychological Factors and Work Engagement in Japanese Workers: A Comparison of Psychological Distress.

García-Rivera, B. R., Olguín-Tiznado, J. E., Aranibar, M. F., Ramírez-Barón, M. C., Camargo-Wilson, C., López-Barreras, J. A., & García-Alcaraz, J. L. (2020). Burnout syndrome in police officers and its relationship with physical and leisure activities. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(15), 5586.

Gong, Z., Li, M., & Niu, X. (2021). The role of psychological empowerment in reducing job burnout among police officers: a variable-centered and person-centered approach. SAGE Open, 11(1), 2158244020983305.

Gumani, M. A. (2019). The influence of organisational stressors on the well-being and performance of operational police members. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 45(1), 1-14.

Haake, U., Lindberg, O., Rantatalo, O., Grimm, F., Siljebo, J., & Bäck, T. (2022). Leadership in Swedish Public Organizations: A Research Review in Education and Care. Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, 1-23.

Hauke-Forman, N., Methner, N., & Bruckmüller, S. (2021). Assertive, but less competent and trustworthy? perception of police officers with tattoos and piercings. Journal of police and criminal psychology, 36(3), 523-536.

Hess, K. M., Orthmann, C. H., & Cho, H. L. (2022). Criminal investigation. Cengage Learning.

Huberts, L., & van Montfort, A. (2021). Ethics, corruption, and integrity of governance: What it is and what helps. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics.

Humayon, A. A., Raza, S., Amir, H., Hussain, M. S., & Ansari, N. (2018). Assessment of work stress among police in Pakistan. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences, 8(2), 68-73.

Jackson, J., Brunton-Smith, I., Bradford, B., Oliveira, T. R., Pósch, K., & Sturgis, P. (2021). Police legitimacy and the norm to cooperate: using a mixed effects location-scale model to estimate the strength of social norms at a small spatial scale. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 37(2), 547-572.

Jekiel, C. M. (2020). Lean human resources: redesigning HR processes for a culture of continuous improvement. CRC Press.

Joh, E. E. (2019). The paradox of private policing. Cambridge Handbook of Policing in America, 143-159.

Kapuria, M., Balani, S., & Kaur, P. (2020). Creating a mindful organisation by redefining PMS in police organisations: a balance scorecard approach. International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, 17(2-3), 147-167.

Kim, M., & Song, C. S. (2021). Understanding police officers’ usage of high-visibility safety apparel: The role of safety ethics and professional appearance. Safety, 7(1), 15.

King, M. (2020). What makes a successful corporate investigator: an exploration of private investigators attributes. Journal of financial crime, 27(3), 701-714.

Koster, N. S. N., Van der Leun, J. P., & Kunst, M. J. (2020). Crime victims’ evaluations of procedural justice and police performance in relation to cooperation: A qualitative study in the Netherlands. Policing and Society, 30(3), 225-240.

Koedijk, M., Renden, P. G., Oudejans, R. R., Kleygrewe, L., & Hutter, R. V. (2021). Observational behavior assessment for psychological competencies in police officers: A proposed methodology for instrument development. Frontiers in psychology, 12, 589258.

Lambert, E. G., Qureshi, H., Keena, L. D., Frank, J., & Hogan, N. L. (2019). Exploring the link between work-family conflict and job burnout among Indian police officers. The Police Journal, 92(1), 35-55.

Lee, J., & Huh, J. (2021). A need for building an ethical and trusting partnership between police officers and interpreters: Findings from South Korea. Translation & Interpreting, 13(2), 29-44.

Li, C., Naz, S., Khan, M. A. S., Kusi, B., & Murad, M. (2019). An empirical investigation on the relationship between a high-performance work system and employee performance: measuring a mediation model through partial least squares–structural equation modeling. Psychology research and behavior management, 397-416.

Lum, C., Koper, C. S., Wilson, D. B., Stoltz, M., Goodier, M., Eggins, E., ... & Mazerolle, L. (2020). Body-worn cameras' effects on police officers and citizen behavior: A systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 16(3), Article-number.

Maile, A., Thompson, A., McLoughlin, S., & Kristjánsson, K. (2022). The choice of deontological, virtue ethical, and consequentialist moral reasoning strategies by pre-and in-service police officers in the UK: an empirical study. Ethics & Behavior, 1-19.

Manzoor, F., Wei, L., Nurunnabi, M., Subhan, Q. A., Shah, S. I. A., & Fallatah, S. (2019). The impact of transformational leadership on job performance and CSR as mediator in SMEs. Sustainability, 11(2), 436.

Marciano, A., Melcarne, A., & Ramello, G. B. (2019). The economic importance of judicial institutions, their performance and the proper way to measure them. Journal of Institutional Economics, 15(1), 81-98.

Martinez-Casanovas, M., Ruiz-Munzon, N., & Buil-Fabrega, M. (2022). Higher education: The best practices for fostering competences for sustainable development through the use of active learning methodologies. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 23(3), 703-727.

Meine, M. F., & Dunn, T. P. (2019). Preventing Corruption in a Changing Military Culture. Global Corruption and Ethics Management: Translating Theory into Action, 202.

Mendoza, R. U., Ilac, E. J. D., Francisco, A. T., & Casilao, J. M. S. (2021). Diagnosing factors behind officers’ performance in the Philippine National Police. Police Practice and Research, 22(4), 1408-1424.

Mens, M. G., Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (2020). Optimism and physical health. The Wiley Encyclopedia of Health Psychology, 385-393.

Nanes, M. J. (2020). Policing in divided societies: Officer inclusion, citizen cooperation, and crime prevention. Conflict Management and Peace Science, 37(5), 580 604.

Nascimento, F. X., Tavares, M. J., Rossi, M. J., & Glick, B. R. (2018). The modulation of leguminous plant ethylene levels by symbiotic rhizobia played a role in the evolution of the nodulation process. Heliyon, 4(12), e01068.

Nisar, S. K., Rasheed, M. I., & Qiang, W. (2018). They can’t safeguard you when they are

under stress: An exploratory study on issues and problems of job stress in police. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 20(2), 124-133.

Nguyen, N. (2019). “The Eyes and Ears on Our Frontlines”: Policing without Police to Counter Violent Extremism. Surveillance & Society, 17(3/4), 322-337.

Nwokeoma, B. N., Ede, M. O., Nwosu, N., Ikechukwu-Illomuanya, A., Ogba, F. N., Ugwoezuonu, A. U., ... & Nwadike, N. (2019). Impact of rational emotive occupational health coaching on work-related stress management among staff of Nigeria police force. Medicine, 98(37).

O'Brien, T. C., Tyler, T. R., & Meares, T. L. (2020). Building popular legitimacy with reconciliatory gestures and participation: A community‐level model of authority. Regulation & Governance, 14(4), 821-839.

Park, W., Jo, S., & Kim, J. (2022). A Study on the Adaptation to the South Korean Society for the Survival of the North Korean Defectors: With a Focus on Job Satisfaction according to the Period of Service of the South Korean Security Police. Public Value, 7, 81-93.

Peterson, S. A., Wolkow, A. P., Lockley, S. W., O'Brien, C. S., Qadri, S., Sullivan, J. P., ... & Barger, L. K. (2019). Associations between shift work characteristics, shift work schedules, sleep and burnout in North American police officers: a cross-sectional study. BMJ open, 9(11), e030302.

Philippine National Police Manual PNPM-DIDM-TS-9-2-2017 on September 2017

Ponomarenko, M. (2019). Rethinking police rulemaking. Nw. UL Rev., 114, 1.

Purba, A., & Demou, E. (2019). The relationship between organisational stressors and mental wellbeing within police officers: a systematic review. BMC public health, 19, 1-21. Rogers, M. S., McNiel, D. E., & Binder, R. L. (2019). Effectiveness of Police Crisis Intervention Training Programs. The journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 47(4), 414-421.

Said, J., Alam, M. M., Karim, Z. A., & Johari, R. J. (2018). Integrating religiosity into fraud triangle theory: findings on Malaysian police officers. Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice.

Sembiring, N., Nimran, U., Astuti, E. S., & Utami, H. N. (2020). The effects of emotional intelligence and organizational justice on job satisfaction, caring climate, and criminal investigation officers’ performance. International Journal of Organizational Analysis.

Sichuan Province Public Security Department. (2018). Thoughts on Properly Handling a Series of Mass Incidents in the Sancha Area of Jianyang City. Chinese Law & Government, 50(5), 357-367.

Shjarback, J. A., Nix, J., & Wolfe, S. E. (2018). The ecological structuring of police officers’ perceptions of citizen cooperation. Crime & Delinquency, 64(9), 1143 1170.

Shvets, D. V., Yevdokimova, O. O., Okhrimenko, I., Ponomarenko, Y. S., Aleksandrov, Y. V., Okhrimenko, S., & Prontenko, K. (2020). The new police training system: Psychological aspects.

Towler, A., Kemp, R. I., Burton, A. M., Dunn, J. D., Wayne, T., Moreton, R., & White, D. (2019). Do professional facial image comparison training courses work?. PloS one, 14(2), e0211037.

Valieiev, R., Polyvaniuk, V., Antonenko, T., Rebkalo, M., Sobakar, A., & Oliinyk, V. (2019). The Effects of Gender, Tenure and Primary Workplace on Burnout of Ukrainian Police Officers. Postmodern Openings/Deschideri Postmoderne, 10(4).

van Steden, R., & Mehlbaum, S. M. (2019). Police volunteers in the Netherlands: a study on policy and practice. Policing and Society, 29(4), 420-433.

van Hulst, M., & Tsoukas, H. (2021). Understanding extended narrative sense making: How police officers accomplish story work. Organization.

Villeda, M., McCamey, R., Essien, E., & Amadi, C. (2019). Use of social networking sites for recruiting and selecting in the hiring process. International business research, 12(3), 66-78.

Wray, C. A., & Jarrett, S. B. (2019). The relationship between burnout and suicidal ideations among Jamaican police officers. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 21.

Weyermann, C., & Roux, C. (2021). A different perspective on the forensic science crisis. Forensic Science International, 323, 110779.

Zafarullah, H., & Haque, H. (2021). Policies, instrumentalities, compliance, and control: combatting money laundering in Bangladesh. Journal of Money Laundering Control.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Jumar P. Donque

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).