TEACHING SOCIAL SKILLS IN SMALL GROUPS OF CHILDREN WITH MULTIPLE DISABILITIES: MOTOR AND INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES. AN INTERVENTION PROGRAM

Christina Lappa, Constantinos Mantzikos

Abstract


Few studies have been conducted in Greece, which focus on the education of children with multiple disabilities (motor and intellectual disabilities, ID). Four children between the ages 9 and 15 with multiple disabilities (motor and ID) were selected to be taught social skills. The aim of this qualitative study was to provide training with regard to cognitive and communication skills and more specifically conversational skills to the four children in order to allow them to engage in conversational exchanges with their peers. Participants were evaluated for their mental capacity and assigned to two groups according to their ability. The intervention combined a table game (puzzle pairs), small-group teaching of structured questions with their answers, modeling, error correction, social praise and tangible reinforcement. A within-subject withdrawal design was used to show the acquisition of knowledge and of the ability to converse through conditions of baseline, teaching, probes and generalization measures. All participants learned to engage in structured conversations. This knowledge generalized and maintained to different settings after 3 and 7 months. A social validity measure affirmed these improvements in their ability to converse.

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter

DOI

Keywords


social skills, children with multiple disabilities, motor and intellectual disabilities, teaching in groups, generalization, intervention program

Full Text:

PDF

References


Almqvist, L., & Granlund, M. (2005). Participation in school environment of children and youth with disabilities: a person-oriented approach. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 46(3), 305-314. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2005.00460.x

Anderson, L.W., & Krathwohl, D.R. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of educational objectives: Complete edition, New York, US: Longman.

Arthur-Kelly, M., Foreman, P., Bennet, D., & Pascoe, S. (2008). Interaction, inclusion and students with profound, and multiple disabilities: towards an agenda for research and practice. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 8(3), 161-166. doi:10.1111/j.1471-3802.2008.00114.x

Arthur, M. (2004). Patterns among behavior states, socio-communicative and activity variables in educational programs for students with profound and multiple disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 16, 125-149. doi:10.1023/b:jodd.0000026611.24306.92

Barnett, J. (1987). Research on language and communication in children who have severe handicaps: a review and some implications for intervention. Educational Psychology, 7 (2), 117-128. doi: 10.1080/0144341870070204

Bayers, R. (1999). Experiencece and achievement: initiatives in curriculum development for pupils with severe and profound and multiple learning difficulties. British Journal of Special Education, 26(4), 184- 188. doi:10.1111/1467-8527.00136

Bradlyn, A.S., Himadi, W.G., Crimmins, D.B., Christoff, K.A., Graves, K.G., & Kelly, G.A. (1983). Conversational skills training for retarded adolescents. Behavior Therapy, 14 (2), 314-325. doi:10.1016/s0005-7894(83)80121-x

Breen, C., Haring, Τ., Pitts-Conway, V., & Gaylord-Ross, R. (1985). The training and generalization of social interaction during break time at two job sites in the natural environment. Journal of the Association for the Severely Handicapped, 10(1), 41-50. doi:10.1177/154079698501000105

Brodin, J. (2005). Diversity of aspects on play in children with profound multiple disabilities. Early Child Development and Care, 175(7-8), 635-646. doi:10.1080/0300443042000266222

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1975). Is early intervention effective? Some studies of early education in familiar and extra familiar settings. London, UK: Oxford University Press.

Chadsey–Rusch, J., Drasgow, E., Reinoehl, B., Halle, J., W., & Collet–Klingenberg, L. (1993). Using General–Case Instruction to Teach Spontaneous and Generalized Requests for Assistance to Learners with Severe Disabilities. The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 18 (3), 177–187. doi:10.1177/154079699301800304

Coupe, J., & Goldbart, J. (1988). Communication before Speech. London, UK: Croom Helm.

CTCF. (2003). Cross-Thematic Curriculum Framework and Curriculum Framework for Compulsory Education, vol. A, Government Gazette issue FEK/303/13-03-03, Athens, Greece (In Greek).

Dellasoudas, L.G. (2005). Teaching pupils with Special Educational Needs: From Theory to Praxis. Athens, Greece: Atrapos Publications (In Greek).

Dimitropoulos, A. (2000). Practical implementation of inclusion programs for children with motor disabilities. Athens, Greece: Ellinika Grammata Publications (In Greek).

Dotson, W.H., Leaf, J.B., Sheldon, J.B., & Sherman, J.A. (2010). Group teaching of conversational skills to adolescents on the autism spectrum. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4(2), 199-209. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2009.09.005

Gordon, P.A., Feldman, D., & Chiriboga, J. (2005). Helping children with disabilities develop and maintain friendships. Teacher Education and Special Education, 28(1), 1-9. doi:10.1177/088840640502800101

Gresham, F., Watson, T.S., & Skinner, C.H. (2001). Functional Behavioral Assessment: Principles, Procedures and Future Direction. School Psychology Review, 30(2), 156- 172.

Gresham, F.M. (1981). Social skills training with handicapped children: a review. Review of Educational Research, 51(1), 139-176. doi:10.3102/00346543051001139

Guralnick, M.J. (1986). Children’s social behavior: Development, assessment, and modification. Orlando, FL, US: Academic Press.

Harjusola-Webb, S.M., & Robbins, S.H. (2012). The Effects of Teacher- Implemented Naturalistic Intervention on the Communication of Preschoolers with Autism. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 32(2), 99-110. doi:10.1177/0271121410397060

Heward, W.L. (2009). Exceptional Children: An introduction to Special Education. New Jersey, US: Person Education.

Hops, H. (1983). Children’s Social Competence and Skill: Current Research Practices and Future Directions. Behavior Therapy, 14(1), 3-18. doi:10.1016/s0005- 7894(83)80084-7

Jones, M. W., Morgan, E., Shelton, J. E., & Thorogood, C. (2007). Cerebral Palsy: Introduction and Diagnosis (Part I). Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 21(3), 146–152. doi:10.1016/j.pedhc.2006.06.007

Kazdin, A.E. (2011). Single- Case Research Designs. Methods for Clinical and Applied Settings (2nd edn), New York, US: Oxford University Press.

Kelly, J.A., Furman, W., Phillips, J., Hathorn, S., & Wilson, T. (1979). Teaching conversational skills to retarded adolescents. Child Behavior Therapy, 1(1), 85-97. doi:10.1300/j473v01n01_09

Kelly, J.A. (1982). Social skills training: A practical guide for interventions. New York, US: Springer

Kelly, J.A., Wildman, B.G., Urey, J.R., & Thurman, C. (1979). Group skills training to increase the conversational repertoire of retarded adolescents. Child Behavior Therapy, 1(4), 323-336. doi:10.1300/j473v01n04_02

Komianou, C., & Nteropoulou-Nterou, E. (2012). Teachers’ experiences and views on the education of students with multiple disabilities. In A. Zoniou-Sideri, E. Nteropoulou-Nterou, & K. Papadopoulou, (Eds.), The research in special education, inclusive education and disability (Volume 2) (pp. 35-56), Athens, Greece: Pedio Publications (In Greek).

Krägeloh-Mann, I., & Cans, C. (2009). Cerebral palsy update. Brain and Development, 31(7), 537–544. doi:10.1016/j.braindev.2009.03.009

Luckasson, R., Coulter, D.L., Polloway, E.A., Reiss, S., Schalock, R.L., Snell, M.E., …, & Stark, J.A. (2002). Mental retardation: Definition, Classification, and systems of supports (9th edn). Washington, DC, US: American Association on Mental Retardation.

Minkin, N., Braukmann, C., Minkin, B., Timbers, G., Timbers, B., & Fixsen, D., …, & Wolf, M.M.(1976). The social validation and training of conversational skills. Journal Of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9(2), 127-139. doi:10.1901/jaba.1976.9- 127

Nota, L., & Soresi, S. (1997). I comportamenti Sociali: dall’ Analisi all’ intervento (Social behaviors from analysis to intervention). Erip Editrice, Pordenone Italy.

O’Brien, J. (1990). Design for accomplishment. Georgia: Responsive Systems Associates.

Papanis, E., Gavrimis, P., & Vicky, A. (2009). Innovative approaches to special education: educational research for vulnerable population groups. Athens, Greece: I. Sideris Publications (In Greek).

Pappa, I. (2008). Solving social problems of pupils with intellectual disabilities. Unpublished PhD Thesis. National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece (In Greek).

Pogrund, R.L., & Fazzi, D.L. (2010). Early Focus. Working with young children who are blind or visually impaired and their families. New York, US: AFB Press.

Rusch, F. R., & Kazdin, A.E. (1981). Toward a methodology of withdrawal designs for the assessment of response maintenance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14, 131-140. doi:10.1901/jaba.1981.14-131

Schlosser, R.W., & Sigafoos, J. (2006). AAC interventions for persons with developmental disabilities: Narrative review of comparative single subject experimental studies. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 27, 1–29. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2004.04.004

Schuchardt, K., Maehler, C., & Hasselhorn, M. (2011). Functional deficits in phonological working memory in children with intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32, 1934–1940. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2011.03.022

Skjørten, M.D. (1989). Communication and structured communication. In H.H. Ray, & M.D. Skjørten (Eds.), Children with Severe Cerebral Palsy: An Educational Guide. (pp.12-35), Paris, France: Unesco.

Snell, M., & Brown, F. (2011). Instruction of students with severe disabilities. Upper Saddle River, NJ, US: Merrill-Pearson.

Soodak, L.C., & Erwin, E.J. (2000). Valued member or tolerated participant: Parents’ experiences in inclusive early childhood settings. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 25, 29–41. doi:10.2511/rpsd.25.1.29

Soulis, S., & Floridis, Th. (2006). Quality of life and youths with mental retardation: Approaching their own choices based on their ability to choose. Psychology, 13 (2), 1-13 (In Greek).

Soulis, S., Fotiadou, E., & Xristodoulou, P. (2014). Handbook of adult educators. Athens, Greece: National Confederation of Persons with Disabilities (In Greek).

Sparrow, S., Balla, D., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). The Vineland adaptive behavior scales (survey form). Circle Pines, MN, US: American Guidance Service

Stalonas, P.M., & Johnson, W. G. (1979). Conversation skills trainings for obsessive speech using an aversive- cueing procedure. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 10, 61-63. doi:10.1016/0005-7916(79)90039-9

Storey, K. (1992). Reliability and validity issues in social validation research involving persons with developmental disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 4(1), 75-81. doi:10.1007/bf01046342

Stroggilos, V., Tragoulia, E., & Kaila, M. (2010). Children with multiple special needs: The access to education. In N. Polemikos, M. Kaila, E. Theodoropoulou, & V. Strogilos, V. (Eds.), Educating children with special needs: An interdisciplinary approach. (pp. 189-208), Athens, Greece: Pedio Publications (In Greek).

UNESCO. (2009). Practical Tips for Teaching Children with Cerebral palsy. Paris, France: UNESCO

Urey, J.R., Laughlin, C.S., & Kelly, J.A. (1979). Teaching heterosocial conversational skills to male psychiatric patients. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatric, 10, 323-328. doi:10.1016/0005-7916(79)90011-9

van der Schuit, M., Segers, E., van Balkom, H., & Verhoeven, L. (2011a). Early language intervention for children with intellectual disabilities: a neurocognitive perspective. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32, 705–712. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2010.11.010

van der Schuit, M., Segers, E., van Balkom, H., & Verhoeven, L. (2011b). How cognitive factors affect language development in children with intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32, 1884–1894. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2011.03.015

Verhoeven, L., Steenge, J., van Weerdenburg, M., & van Balkom, H. (2011). Assessment of second language proficiency in bilingual children with specific language impairment: a clinical perspective. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32, 1798– 1807. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2011.03.010

Ware, J. (1994). Creating a responsive environment for people with profound and multiple learning difficulties. London, UK: David Fulton.

Weiner, J. (2004). Do peer relationships foster behavioral adjustment in children with learning disabilities? Learning Disability Quarterly, 27(1), 21-30. doi:10.2307/1593629

Wildman, B.G., Wildman, H.E., & Kelly, W.J. (1986). Group conversational-skills, training and social validation with mentally retarded adults. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 7, 443-458. doi:10.1016/s0270-3092(86)80017-0

Wilkins, J., & Matson, J.L. (2007). Social Skills. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation, 34, 321-363. doi:10.1016/s0074-7750(07)34010-x




Copyright © 2015. European Journal of Special Education Research (ISSN 2501 - 2428) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).