Brittany McNeal, Savannah O’Brien, Benjamin P. Schade, Karen H. Larwin


Depression is a common post-concussion symptom. The depressive symptoms and its effects seemingly appear to be more long term, with some patients still reporting three months to nine years’ post-concussion. School apathy post head trauma can negatively influence prognosis and essentially make the condition worse. Student disruptions post head trauma will result in an inability to reason, problem-solve, set goals, self-monitor, initiate or inhibit response behavior, and effectively execute purposeful behavior. The current investigation examines the effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among school-aged athletes (ages 13- to 18-years-old) compared to same-aged athletes who did not have a diagnosis/history of TBI. A Multivariate analysis and t-test are utilized to address the self-reported data in relation to students’ feelings, disruption, and school apathy with and without head trauma. It is expected that the results will show adverse effects in those student athletes who had reported head trauma when examining their feelings, disruptions, and school apathy when compared to those student athletes without head trauma. 


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