A. G. Adeleke, P. O. Jegede, H. O. Ajayi


The competence and positive disposition development toward mathematic subject has been observed an uphill task to learners across educational endeavors despite its need in life at home, paid work, participation in community and civic life. The Nigerian Education Policy (2013) made numeracy an important aspect of the specific objectives of primary education in Nigeria. However, the teaching-learning processes lithely attend to specification(s) of utilities. In Nigeria, most schools lack instructional materials; the available were mainly ready-made - majorly imported. Information and communication technology has greatly improved teaching and learning yet, observations revealed domination of foreign tongued instructional materials – uneconomical, alien, distractive and inadequate. This study constructs and investigates the effect of a locally produced, customized numeracy package, the Rudimentary Number Skills for Children (RuNS-K) on academic achievement of pupils in computer mediated environment with a view to improve pupils’ performance in numeracy. Pre-test, post-test, quasi experimental research design was adopted. The population consist lower primary school pupils in southwest Nigeria. Multi stage sampling technique was employed to select study sample. One senatorial district, one of the five major cities in the district, three of the eighty-four public primary schools having functional computer laboratories were purposively sampled. An intact class in each school was randomly assigned into two experimental (ICT-integrated Learning Cycle and ICT-integrated Learners-self-controlled) and a comparison groups. Study instruments include the Rudimentary Number Skill for Children (RuNS-K) and the Test of Numeracy Achievement (TNA). The study found localized, customized packages needful for numeracy improvement. It also found significant improvement in numeracy performance in learners in ICT-integrated Learners-self-controlled (ICT- LSC) situation. The study further revealed customized ICT- LSC learning strategy as best influence for retention in pupils. It concludes that, interventions with customized, ICT-integrated learners-self-controlled situation improve learners’ cognition both in performance and retention. Study recommends localized, improvised educational materials development and usage as aid to improving teaching-learning process and the entire education system in Nigeria. 


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



customized RuNS-K, learning cycle, learners’-self-controlled, numeracy, retention


Adeleke, A. G. (2010). Comparative Effectiveness of Two ICT-Integrated Learning Strategies on Mastery of Numeracy among Lower Primary School Pupils in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Thesis submitted to the Institute Of Education, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Adeleke, A. G. (2016). A Survey of Internet Usage for Learning in Nigerian Secondary Schools. Journal of Media Educational Technology and Communications (JOMETEC), Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. 3 (1), pp.102-106.

Adesoji, O. O. (2005). A STUDY OF Relative Effectiveness of Learning Cycle and Concept Mapping Approaches for Correcting Students Misconceptions in Chemistry. Unpublished PhD Thesis submitted to the Department of Special Education and Curriculum Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, p.55.

Adeyanju, J. L. (1988). The Application of Educational Technology in Pre-Primary Education. Journal of Educational Media and Technology (JMT), 2(1), pp.72-9.

Berg, S., Benz, C. R., Lasley, T. J. and Raisch, C. D. (1999). Exemplary Technology Use in Elementary Classrooms. Journal of Research in Computing in Education, 31(2), pp.111-22.

Bloom, B., Englehart, M., Furst, E., Hill, W. and Krathwohl, D. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook 1 – Cognitive Domain. New York, Toronto: Longmans, Green

Borg, W. R. and Gall, M. D. (1993). Applying Educational Research: A Practical Guide (3rd Edition).. New York, Longmans.

Chiviacowsky, S., Wulf, G. & Lewthwaite, R. (2012). Self-controlled learning: the importance of protecting perceptions and competence. Front. Psychology 3:458. DoI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00458.

Coben, D. (2003). Adult Numeracy: Review of Research and Related Literature. National Research and development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy.

Commission for European Communities (2001). Information and Communication Technologies in Development: The Role of ICT’s in EC Development Policy. Brussels, Commission of the European Communities. Available at

Crocker, C. (1965). Statistics for Teachers. London: Fann Ltd.

Dooley, T., Dunphy, E., Shiel, G., Butler, D., Corcoran, D., Farrell, T., NicMhuirí,S., O’Connor, M. and Travers, J. (2014). Mathematics in Early Childhood and Primary Education (3-8 years) Teaching and Learning. Dublin, National Council for Curriculum and Assessment.

Federal Republic of Nigeria (2013). National Policy on Education, 6th Edition. Lagos: NERDC.

Herin, G. (2007). Promoting Lifelong Learning Through the Use of Self-Regulated Learning: a Guide for Intermediate Educators. All Regis University Theses. Paper 275.

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)/World Bank (2008). Global ICT Results. Accessed at

Jack, G. U. (2017).The effect of learning cycle constructivist-based approach on students’ academic achievement and attitude towards chemistry in secondary schools in north-eastern part of Nigeria. Educational Research and Reviews, Vol. 12(7), pp. 456-466.DOI: 10.5897/ERR2016.3095

Karplus, R. (1977). Science Teaching and the Development of Reasoning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 14, pp.169-175.

Kizilcec, R. F., Perez-Sanagustín, M and Maldonado, J. J. (2017). Self-regulated learning strategies predict learner behavior and goal attainment in Massive Open Online Courses. Computers & Education 104 18-33.

Mehrens, W. A., and Lehmann, J. I. (1978). Measurement and Evaluation. 2nd Edition. United States: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

Pease B., Pease A. (2004). The Definitive Book of Body Language. New York, NY: Bantam Books.

Post, P. G., Fairbrother, J. T. and Barros, J. A. (2011). Self-controlled amount of practice benefits learning of a motor skill. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport 82, 474-481.

Rossiter, J. R. (2011). Measurement for the Social Sciences, The C-OAR-SE Method and why it must Replace Psychometrics. Accessed at

Soyinbo and Akintola (1985). Selected Science, misconceptions amongst some Nigerian Certificated Students. In Helm, H., Taber, S. K. and Mike, W. (eds). Constructivisim and Concept Learning in Chemistry: Perspectives from a Case Study. Havering College of Further and Higher Education. London: Rochampton Institution.

State of Victoria (2009) Numeracy in practice: Teaching, Learning and using Mathematics. Paper No. 18. Melbourne, Education Policy and Research Division, Office for Policy, Research and Innovation, Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. pp.6-10.

Taber, K. S. (2011). Constructivism as Educational Theory: Contingency in Learning, and Optimally Guided Instruction. In J. Hassaskhah (Ed.). Educational Theory. Nova Science Publishers. Pp.39-61.

Taipjutorus, W., Hansen, S. and Brown, M. (2012). Improving Learners’ Self-efficacy in a learner-controlled online learning environment: a correlational study. In M. Brown, M. Harnett & T. Stewart (Eds.), Future Challenges, sustainable futures. Proceedings ASCILITE Wellington. Pp907-911.

Treicher, D. G. (1967). Are you missing the boat in training aid? Film and AV Communication, 1, 14–16.

University of Tasmania (2009). Action Research: An Approach to Professional Learning. Faculty of Education Presentation. Sharon Fraser.

Wiberg, M. (2004). Classical Test Theory vs. Item Response Theory: An Evaluation of the Theory test in the Swedish Diving-license Test. UMEA Universitet, ISSN 113-2685.

Willis, S. (1992). Being Numerate: Whose Right? Who’s Left? Literacy and Numeracy Exchange, Autumn 1992.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 A. G. Adeleke, P. O. Jegede, H. O. Ajayi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2022. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).