Hikmet Doğrul, Figen Kılıç


The purpose of this study is to examine opinions, expectations and metaphorical perceptions of parents about preschool education. In the research, cross-sectional design, one of the survey model types, was used. The sample of the study consists of 1080 parents, 873 of whom are females and 207 of them are males, whose students are living in the central districts of Mersin. The data of the research were collected by using Personal Information Form, Opinion and Expectation Determination Survey for Preschool Education, Open-ended Questions Form, Metaphoric Perception Determination Form. While the analysis of quantitative data was done with frequency and percentage calculations, content analysis was made for qualitative data. According to the results of the research, the parents stated that the education received in the preschool period will positively affect the future education of the children and they stated the necessity of providing training for foreign language education, art education in preschool education. Besides, it was determined that the parents send their children to preschool education institutions for general development. It was seen that the parents take into account such criteria as teacher efficiency, providing family attendance and the quality of physical conditions in an effective preschool education. It was determined that the priority of the parents was the gaining of social skills in preschool education. It was determined that the metaphorical senses of the parents focus on such words as sapling, the basement of the house, untreated dough, preparation for life about preschool education.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


preschool education, opinions of parents, expectations of parents, metaphorical senses of parents

Full Text:



Achhpal, B. (2000). A comparison of European American and Puerto Rican parents' beliefs and expectations concerning early intervention programs for preschool children (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Connecticut, Connecticut, USA.

Akdoğan, F. (2004). Foreign language teaching at an early age in the light of new projects. Hasan Ali Yücel Faculty of Education Journal, 2, 97-109.

Aktaş Arnas, Y. (2002). Aims of science education in preschool period. Journal of Child Development and Education, 6 (7), 1-6.

Altinkaynak, Ş. Ö., & Yaniklar, C. (2014). Expectations of mothers and fathers regarding the development of their children who continue preschool education. Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Journal of Education Faculty, 30, 56-72.

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2013). Children, adolescents, and the media. Pediatrics, 132(5), 958–961.

Anders, Y., Grosse, C., Rossbach, H. G., Ebert, S., & Weinert, S. (2013). Preschool and primary school influences on the development of children's early numeracy skills between the ages of 3 and 7 years in Germany. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 24(2), 195-211.

Anşin, S. (2006). Foreign language teaching in children. Ziya Gökalp Faculty of Education Journal, 6, 9-20.

Argon, T., & Akaya, M. (2008). Parents' opinions on preschool education and preschool education institutions. Kastamonu Education Journal, 16 (2), 413-430.

Avcu, A. U. (2016). Investigation of mothers' expectations from pre-school education on the development of their five-year-old children I. Cumhuriyet International Journal of Education, 5(2), 23.

Barbarin, O. A., McCandies, T., Early, D., Clifford, R. M., Bryant, D., Burchinal, M., & Pianta, R. (2006). Quality of prekindergarten: What families are looking for in public sponsored programs. Early Education and Development, 17(4), 619-642.

Barnett, W. S. (2008). Preschool education and its lasting effects: Research and policy implications. Boulder and Tempe: Education and the Public Interest Center & Education Policy Research Unit. Retrieved [date] from

Barnett, W. S., Carolan, M. E., Fitzgerald, J., and Squires, J. H. (2012). The state of preschool 2012: State preschool yearbook. New Brunswick, NJ: National Institute for Early Education Research.

Başal, H. A. & Kahraman B. K. (2018). Expectations of mothers living in villages and cities from pre-school education institutions. Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Journal of Education Faculty, 47, 38-56.

Bayrak, S. and Köksal, O. (2017). Investigation of the expectations of parents from pre-school education (Elazig province example). The Journal of Academic Social Science, 5(45), 547-557.

Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2012). Sampling Methods. Retrieved from on 13.09.2018.

Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş. and Demirel, F. (2013). Scientific research methods. Pegem Academy Publishing.

Can Yaşar, M. (2001). Family participation in education in preschool education institutions. Gazi University Kindergarten / Kindergarten Teacher Handbook (Enhanced Edition). Istanbul: YA-PA Publications p: 366–375.

Creswell, J. W. (2017). Educational Research: Planning, execution and evaluation of quantitative and qualitative research. (trans. Ed: Eksi, H.), Erdem Publishing, Istanbul.

Crosnoe, R., Leventhal, T., Wirth, R. J., Pierce, K. M., Pianta, R. C., & NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2010). Family socioeconomic status and consistent environmental stimulation in early childhood. Child development, 81(3), 972-987.

Cryer, D., Tietze, W., & Wessels, H. (2002). Parents’ perceptions of their children’s child care: A cross-national comparison. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 17(2), 259-277.

Çağdaş, A. ve Seçer, Ş. Z. (2007). Parent education. 3rd Edition. Ankara: Kök Publishing

Çocuk, H. E., Yokuş, G. and Tanrıseven, I. (2015). Self-efficacy and metaphoric perceptions of pedagogical formation students regarding teaching: Mersin university example. Mustafa Kemal University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 12 (32), 373–387.

Diamond, K. E., & Baroody, A. E. (2013). Associations among name writing and alphabetic skills in prekindergarten and kindergarten children at risk of school failure. Journal of Early Intervention, 35(1), 20-39.

Dickinson, D. K., & Porche, M. V. (2011). Relation between language experiences in preschool classrooms and children’s kindergarten and fourth‐grade language and reading abilities. Child development, 82(3), 870-886.

Doğrul, H. ve Akay, C. (2019). Comparison between Syrian and Turkish parents’ opinions and expectations about pre-school education, Journal of Social Sciences, (36), 119-139.

Duncan, G. J., and Magnuson, K. (2013). Investing in preschool programs. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 27(2), 109-32.

Einarsdóttir, J. (2010). Icelandic parents’ views on the national policy on early childhood education. Early Years: Journal of International Research and Development, 30 (3), 229-242.

Erbay, E. (2008). The level of social skills of elementary school primary school students with and without preschool education (unpublished master's thesis). Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey.

Esaspehlivan, M. (2006). Comparison of school readiness of 78 and 68 months old children who have gone to and have not gone to preschool education institution (Unpublished master's thesis). Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Foot, H., Howe, C., Cheyne, B., Terras, M., and Rattray, C. (2000). Pre-school Education: Parents' preferences, knowledge and expectations Enseignement Prescolaire: Preferences, connaissances et attentes des parent Educacion Preescolar: Preferencias, conocimiento y expectativas de los padres. International Journal of Early Years Education, 8(3), 189-204.

Gordon, R. A., Hofer, K. G., Fujimoto, K. A., Risk, N., Kaestner, R., & Korenman, S. (2015). Identifying high-quality preschool programs: New evidence on the validity of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale–Revised (ECERS-R) in relation to school readiness goals. Early Education and Development, 26(8), 1086-1110.

Gündoğdu, Z., Seytepe, Ö., Pelit, B. M., Doğru, H., Güner, B., Arıkız, E., & Kaya, E. (2016). Media usage in preschool children. Kocaeli University Journal of Health Sciences, 2 (2), 6-10.

Gürşimşek, I. (2003). Family involvement in preschool education and psychosocial development. Educational Sciences in Theory and Practice, 3 (1), 125-144.

Hsieh, C., (2008). Parental Choice of Preschool in Taiwan (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Bath, Taiwan.

Inal, G. (2006). Evaluation of teachers 'views about kindergartens and their mother and parents' participation in the programs (example of Afyon province). (Unpublished Master Thesis). Hacettepe University, Ankara.

İlter, B., and Er, S. (2007). Parent and teacher opinions on teaching foreign languages at an early age. Kastamonu Education Journal, 15 (1), 21-30.

Kaiser, M., & Bauer, J. M. (2017). Preschool child care and child well-being in Germany: Does the migrant experience differ?. Hohenheim Discussion Papers In Business Economics and Social Sciences, 21(2017), 3-47.

Karakoç, C. (2007). A curriculum proposal for English lesson in kindergartens in preschool education. (Unpublished master thesis) İnönü University, Malatya.

Lahaie, C. (2008). School readiness of children immigrants: Does parental involvement play a role? Social Science Quarterly, 89(3), 684-705.

Manigo, C., & Allison, R. (2017). Does pre-school education matter? Understanding the lived experiences of parents and their perceptions of preschool education. Teacher Educators' Journal, 10, 5-42.

Maxwell, L. E. (2016). School building condition, social climate, student attendance and academic achievement: A mediation model. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 46, 206-216.

Mert, E. L. (2013). Analysis of Turkish teacher candidates' perceptions of four basic language skills through metaphors. International Journal of Social Research, 6 (27), 357-372.

Metin, N., Arı, M., Güneysu, S., Dikmen, B., Atik, B., Aydın, C., & Uysal, N. (1993). Expectations of Parents from Kindergarten. 9. Ya-Pa Pre-School Education Dissemination Seminar, Ya-Pa publications, Istanbul.

Miles, B. M., & Huberman M. A. (2016). Qualitative data analysis (Tra. Ed: S. Akbaba Altun ve A. Ersoy)]. Ankara: Pegem Academy.

Oktay, A. (2003). Basic concepts of preschool, aims and basic principles of preschool education (Special teaching methods). Eskişehir: Anadolu University Open Education Faculty Publications.

Oktay, A., & Unutkan, Ö. P. (2005). New Approaches in Early Childhood Development and Education. Preparing for primary education and comparing pre-school education with primary education. Istanbul: Morpa Culture Publications.

Ömeroğlu, E. and Can Yaşar, M. (2005). Family participation in education in preschool education institutions. Journal of Education in the Light of Science and Mind, 6 (62).

Ömeroğlu, E., Yazıcı, Z., Dere, H. (2003). Parent's participation in education in preschool education institutions. Early Childhood Development and New Approaches to Education (Publisher: Müzeyyen Sevinç). Istanbul: Morpa Kültür Yayınları, pp.440- 446.

Özalp, H. K. (2009). A case study on the application of the multi-field art education method in pre-school (5-6 age group) art activities (Doctoral dissertation, Selcuk University Institute of Social Sciences).

Ramazan, M. O. (2015). A comparison of Turkish and South Korean mothers' views about preschool education and their expectations from preschools. Online Submission, 5(9), 565-578.

Reja, U., Manfreda, K. L., Hlebec, V. ve Vehovar, V. (2003). Open- Ended vs Close- Ended Questions in Web Questionnaires, Developments in Applied Statistics, 159-177. accessed on 30/08/2018.

Seçkin, N., & Koç, G. (1997). School-family cooperation in preschool education. Education as you live, 51, 5-10.

Sevinç, M. (2006). Expectations of mothers of children who received preschool education from school. Kazım Karabekir Faculty of Education Journal, 13 (1), 218-225.

Seyfullahoğulları, A. (2012). A study on the expectations of families from kindergartens. The Journal of Marmara Social Research, 2, 1-15.

Siraj-Blatchford, I., Muttock, S., Sylva, K., Gilden, R., & Bell, D. (2002). Researching effective pedagogy in the early years. Retrieved from on 10.12.2018.

Stipek, D., & Byler, P. (2001). Academic achievement and social behaviors associated with age of entry into kindergarten. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 22(2), 175-189.

Şahin, B. K., Sak, R., & Şahin, İ. T. (2013). Parents’ opinions about preschool education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 89, 288-292.

Şahin, T. F., & Turla, A. (1996). Investigation of parent education studies in preschool education institutions. II. National Education Symposium Papers, Marmara.

Temel, Fulya Z. (2001). Parent involvement in preschool education. Gazi University Kindergarten / Kindergarten Teacher Handbook (Enhanced Edition). Istanbul: YA-PA Publications. pp: 342-359.

Tezel Şahin, F. and Özyürek, A. (2010). Parent education and family participation in preschool education. Istanbul: Morpa Kültür Publications.

The National Parent Teacher Association (PTA) (2015). PTA &Parent Involvement-Background Information Definition of Parent Involvement. Retrieved from on 3.02.2019.

Toluç, Z. (2008). Comparison of the development skills of the students who received and did not receive preschool education according to the opinions of primary school primary school teachers. (Unpublished master thesis), Beykent University, İstanbul.

Topaç, N., Yaman, Y., Ogurlu, Ü., & İlgar, L. (2012, September). Investigating the criteria that families with preschool children consider when choosing a preschool education institution. In New Trends on Global Education Conference. North Cyprus (pp. 24-26).

Tuğrul, B., & Tokuç, H. (2007). Investigation of the opinions and expectations of parents about preschool education. I. National Primary Education Congress, Hacettepe University, Ankara.

Turner, K. M., Richards, M., & Sanders, M. R. (2007). Randomised clinical trial of a group parent education programme for Australian Indigenous families. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 43(6), 429-437.

Ulutaş, İ., & Ersoy, Ö. (2004). Art education in preschool period. Kastamonu Education Journal, 12 (1), 1-12.

Vidali, E. L. (1998). Parental expectations of early childhood services for preschool children: the case of policy change in Greece, International Journal of Early Years Education, 6(1), 19-30.

Yaman, R. P., & Saçkes, M. (2017). What do parents expect from the preschool educational institution managers? Comparison of parent and manager expectations. Journal of Early Childhood Studies, 1 (1), 94-103.

Yeşil, D. (2008). Comparison of the adaptation of students with and without preschool education to the school, (Unpublished master's thesis). Yeditepe University, Istanbul.

Zembat, R., & Unutkan, Ö. P. (2001). The place of the family in the socialization of the child in preschool period. Istanbul: Ya-Pa Publishing, 30-60.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Hikmet Doğrul, Figen Kılıç

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2023. European Journal of Education Studies (ISSN 2501 - 1111) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).